There are essentially only three functions to animal built structures: to create a protected home, to trap prey, and for intraspecific communication. The most common functions of these homes are protection against extremes of temperature and the threat of predation. However, their protective walls generate secondary problems, gas exchange, for example, which must be solved by further adaptations, some architectural, so adding to the complexity of the structure. In addition, these living spaces may, through evolution, incorporate new functions, such as food storage or fungus cultivation. The common attribute of all these structures is that they extend the control of the builder over some aspect of the environment. This chapter considers first the ability of these homes to regulate the interior physical and also the biological environment, before looking at the nature and mode of operation of prey capture and finally communication devices.
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