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Neural and Behavioural PlasticityThe Use of the Domestic Chick as a Model$
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R. J. Andrew

Print publication date: 1991

Print ISBN-13: 9780198521846

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198521846.001.0001

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Stages of memory formation in the chick: findings and problems

Stages of memory formation in the chick: findings and problems

(p.394) 15 Stages of memory formation in the chick: findings and problems
Neural and Behavioural Plasticity

M. R. Rosenzweig

E. L. Bennett

J. L. Martinez

D. Beniston

P. J. Colombo

D. W. Lee

T. A. Patterson

G. Schulteis

P. A. Serrano

Oxford University Press

This chapter presents evidence for multiple stages in memory formation in the chick, state dependency as an alternative to amnesic effects, participation of different regions of the chick brain in stages of memory formation, effects of opioid agonists and antagonists on learning and memory in the chick, and problems encountered in research with chicks. Biochemical stages in formation of memory, they may not coincide with separate behavioural stages of memory. State-dependent learning (SDL) for some drugs is well documented in both humans and animals. Experiments have been conducted to test which drugs cause SDL in chicks. Exploration is continuing at brain sites. Problems encountered in research with chicks are: different results yielded by variety of methods and protocols, different behavioural characteristics of chicks used in different laboratories, and problems with retention of material injected transcranially into the chick.

Keywords:   memory formation, state dependency, biochemical changes, behavioural stages, state-dependent learning, amnesic effects

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