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The Neuropsychology of AnxietyAn enquiry into the function of the septo-hippocampal system$
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Jeffrey A. Gray and Neil McNaughton

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780198522713

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522713.001.0001

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Fundamentals of the septo-hippocampal system

Fundamentals of the septo-hippocampal system

Chapter:
(p.204) 9 Fundamentals of the septo-hippocampal system
Source:
The Neuropsychology of Anxiety
Author(s):

Jeffrey A. Gray

Neil McNaughton

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522713.003.0009

This chapter reviews data that provide critical principals that need to be explained by any theory of the septo-hippocampal system: 1) that it mediates the action of all anti-anxiety drugs; 2) memories depend on synaptic plasticity outside the hippocampus with hippocampal plasticity representing re-programming of a machine not data storage; 3) the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus process goals (where/what combinations) with the distinction between ‘stimulus’ and ‘response’ being inappropriate at their level of the nervous system; 4) the hippocampus has no necessary involvement in any aspect of goal processing but modulates such processing when there is conflict between concurrent goals; 5) frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia all deal with different aspects of response inhibition; 6) modern theories should account for all types of data on the hippocampus; 7) the hippocampus is phylogenetically old; 8) the hippocampus contains a set of logical gates; 9, 10, 11, and 12) the hippocampus inhibits the formation of incorrect associations rather than forming correct ones by recursive processing and so modulates, but is not part of classical sensory systems; 13) the hippocampus detects mismatch between expected and actual events; 14 and 15) monoamine systems act to alter the signal-to-noise ratio of hippocampal processing, each for a different types of event; and 16) rhythmic ‘theta’ activity is important for hippocampal processing, particularly when optimum performance is required.

Keywords:   hippocampus, theory, frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, theta rhythm

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