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The Neuropsychology of AnxietyAn enquiry into the function of the septo-hippocampal system$
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Jeffrey A. Gray and Neil McNaughton

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780198522713

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2008

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198522713.001.0001

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Fundamentals of the septo-hippocampal system

Fundamentals of the septo-hippocampal system

(p.204) 9 Fundamentals of the septo-hippocampal system
The Neuropsychology of Anxiety

Jeffrey A. Gray

Neil McNaughton

Oxford University Press

This chapter reviews data that provide critical principals that need to be explained by any theory of the septo-hippocampal system: 1) that it mediates the action of all anti-anxiety drugs; 2) memories depend on synaptic plasticity outside the hippocampus with hippocampal plasticity representing re-programming of a machine not data storage; 3) the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus process goals (where/what combinations) with the distinction between ‘stimulus’ and ‘response’ being inappropriate at their level of the nervous system; 4) the hippocampus has no necessary involvement in any aspect of goal processing but modulates such processing when there is conflict between concurrent goals; 5) frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia all deal with different aspects of response inhibition; 6) modern theories should account for all types of data on the hippocampus; 7) the hippocampus is phylogenetically old; 8) the hippocampus contains a set of logical gates; 9, 10, 11, and 12) the hippocampus inhibits the formation of incorrect associations rather than forming correct ones by recursive processing and so modulates, but is not part of classical sensory systems; 13) the hippocampus detects mismatch between expected and actual events; 14 and 15) monoamine systems act to alter the signal-to-noise ratio of hippocampal processing, each for a different types of event; and 16) rhythmic ‘theta’ activity is important for hippocampal processing, particularly when optimum performance is required.

Keywords:   hippocampus, theory, frontal cortex, cingulate cortex, basal ganglia, theta rhythm

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