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Neuronal Control of LocomotionFrom Mollusc to Man$
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Grigori Orlovsky, T. G. Deliagina, and Sten Grillner

Print publication date: 1999

Print ISBN-13: 9780198524052

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198524052.001.0001

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Swimming in the crayfish and lobster

Swimming in the crayfish and lobster

(p.74) 5 Swimming in the crayfish and lobster
Neuronal Control of Locomotion

G. N. Orlovsky

T. G. Deliagina

S. Grillner

Oxford University Press

This chapter gives an account of swim-motor patterns in lobsters and crayfish. The swimmerets of crayfish and lobsters are paired segmental limbs located on the ventral side of the abdomen, and which normally beat metachronously when the animal swims forward, walks, or ventilates its burrow. Each cycle consists of a posteriorly directed power stroke that alternates with an anteriorly directed return stroke. The frequency of beating is 1–2 Hz. Each of the swimmerets is controlled by a separate nervous mechanism located in the corresponding abdominal hemiganglion. Two groups of motor neurons innervate the muscles generating the power stroke and the return stroke of a swimmeret. Each group contains at least six excitatory neurons and one inhibitory neuron. The power-stroke and return-stroke motor neurons receive a depolarizing drive from the rhythm-generating interneurons in one phase of the swim cycle, and a hyperpolarizing drive in the opposite phase. Activation of the swimmeret system is performed by a few pairs of identified command neurons.

Keywords:   swim-motor patterns, lobsters, crayfish, abdominal hemiganglion, excitatory neurons

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