This chapter is concerned with orienting the eye to visual targets. Research has suggested some direct links between studies of human behaviour and the underlying neurophysiology. There are two key questions. Firstly, what determines the latency of the saccade? That is the time to initiate an eye movement after the onset of the saccade target. Secondly, what determines where the saccade lands? The chapter describes the experimental paradigms that have been used to investigate these two processes as well as the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. The chapter also includes a detailed discussion of the Findlay and Walker model of visual orienting, and illustrates how this model accounts for the behavioural evidence in a way that is consistent with findings in neurophysiology. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the development and plasticity of the oculomotor system.
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