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Crystalline Molecular Complexes and CompoundsStructures and Principles$
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Frank H. Herbstein

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780198526605

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198526605.001.0001

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Intercalation complexes

Intercalation complexes

(p.515) Chapter 9 Intercalation complexes
Crystalline Molecular Complexes and Compounds

Frank H. Herbstein

Oxford University Press

The pristine host materials of intercalation complexes consist of two-dimensional sheets, successive sheets being linked by van der Waals interactions. Within the sheets, the constituent atoms are covalently bonded and so the hosts are highly anisotropic in structure and properties. The sheets are comparatively easily pried apart, and thus allow interlayer insertion of guest moieties with consequent property changes that can be exploited for a variety of purposes. From the large variety of possible examples, the intercalation complexes of graphite (GICs), (2H)-TaS2, and zirconium phosphates and phosphonates are discussed. Graphite in this context is amphoteric and can intercalate both electron donors (e.g., some of the alkali metals) and electron acceptors (e.g., some of the halogens). Tantalum sulphide is a representative of a large family of transition metal chalcogenides, which intercalate metals and organic guests. Its particular interest lies in the fact that the organic-guest intercalates become superconducting, albeit at very low temperatures. The zirconium phosphates and phosphonates are models for the smectic clays, are ion exchangers, and catalysts.

Keywords:   van der Waals interactions, staging, TaS2 phosphate, zirconium phosphate, phosphonates, organic-guest intercalates

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