This chapter first explains basic radiation damage mechanisms (i.e., displacement and ionization damage), and then applies them to sensors and transistors. Radiation damage in detector diodes manifests itself as an increase in reverse bias current, changes in the required bias voltage, and carrier losses due to trapping. Space charge buildup due to displacement damage in depletion layers is described, which leads to a strong increase in the required bias voltage vs. temperature and time (anti-annealing). The effects of radiation damage on operating parameters and noise of field effect transistors (JFETs, MOSFETs) and bipolar transistors are discussed, together with annealing phenomena, e.g., low dose enhancement in bipolar transistors. The closing section discusses mitigation techniques, showing the interplay of system architecture, device parameters, and operating conditions.
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