This chapter is devoted to the applications of dynamical diffraction to X-ray optics. After a brief description of X-ray sources (tubes and synchrotron radiation), it gives the principle of the various types of monochromators and of multiple-crystal beam conditioning. It then describes the different devices for beam focusing optics (mirrors, multilayers, curved crystals, Fresnel zone plates, Bragg–Fresnel lenses, refractive lenses, and X-ray waveguides). The last two sections concern the principle and applications of X-ray interferometers (moiré topography, measurement of indices of refraction and anomalous dispersion factors, metrology) and X-ray phase contrast imaging.
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