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Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials$
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Mark Elwood

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780198529552

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198529552.001.0001

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Critical appraisal of a matched case–control study

Critical appraisal of a matched case–control study

(p.453) Chapter 14 Critical appraisal of a matched case–control study
Critical Appraisal of Epidemiological Studies and Clinical Trials

J. Mark Elwood

Oxford University Press

This chapter presents an example of the application of the scheme for critical appraisal: a small matched case-control study entitled ‘Increased risk of endometrial carcinoma among users of conjugated estrogens’, published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1975. The study is the first publication showing an important relationship between a disease and a widely used drug. It was chosen because it is now of historical importance, and is a good example of an individually matched study with several issues of interpretation. In addition, it shows an interesting way of assessing confounding, which is valid although not usually used in current studies.

Keywords:   confounding, case control studies, causal relationships, endometrial carcinoma, estrogen

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