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Cephalopod NeurobiologyNeuroscience Studies in Squid, Octopus and Cuttlefish$
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N. Joan Abbott, Roddy Williamson, and Linda Maddock

Print publication date: 1995

Print ISBN-13: 9780198547907

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.001.0001

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The structure and physiology of cephalopod muscle fibres

The structure and physiology of cephalopod muscle fibres

Chapter:
20 The structure and physiology of cephalopod muscle fibres
Source:
Cephalopod Neurobiology
Author(s):

Q. Bone

E. R. Brown

M. Usher

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198547907.003.0206

This chapter describes the structure of cephalopod ‘skeletal’ muscle fibers and radial chromatophore fibers. Almost all muscle fibers in cephalopods are quite different in design to those of vertebrates. The special features of cephalopods are their remarkable colour changes and their jetpropelled swimming, both of which involve interesting muscular adaptations. The muscle fibers consist of a central mitochondrial core of varying diameter surrounded by a cortical myofilament zone, in which the myofilaments lie in an obliquely striated array. Although some cephalopod muscles insert on skeletal structures, most operate differently, and are arranged instead either around a fluid-filled hydroskeleton or as muscular hydrostats. In the arms and tentacles, muscle fibers in three planes produce the movements, and there is no fluid-filled hydroskeleton against which they operate; while in the mantle, the fibers are arranged in two planes only: radial fibers thinning the mantle and thus expanding the mantle cavity, opposed by circular fibers contracting against the water within the mantle cavity. The existence of extensive dye-coupling between fibers suggests that the fibers may be electrically coupled and hence individual fibers are unlikely to be doubly innervated. The mantle circular fibers and the chromatophore fibers probably are innervated by glutamatergic nerves, whilst the radial fibers of the mantle, the head retractor muscles, and some muscles in the tentacles and arms receive a cholinergic innervation. Mechanoreceptors occur in the cephalopod mantle and fins, but their role in motor control is not known. After a brief consideration of muscle biochemistry, lacunae of cephalopod muscle are discussed.

Keywords:   cephalopod muscle fibers, radial chromatophore fibers, hydroskeleton, glutamatergic nerves, mantle circular fibers, radial fibers

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