This chapter discusses a range of intertidal habitats, mudflats, saltmarsh, and sandy and shingle beaches, together with habitats beyond the usual upper tidal limit, which are affected by coastal processes, saline water, or exposure from salt-laden winds. These include sand dunes, cliffs, saline lagoons, brackish (between freshwater and seawater) marshes, and grasslands. The successional stages of intertidal habitats are largely determined by changes in coastal geomorphology (coastal processes), and in most cases less so by grazing or other forms of vegetation removal. Most principles of managing coastal habitats above the usual upper tidal limit are similar to those of their inland equivalents.
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