This chapter traces methods of outbreak investigation and the development of ideas about the causes of typhoid from the environmental pollution concepts of the 1880s to the identification of the human carrier in the early twentieth century. It discusses the problems surrounding the practical utilization of knowledge of the carrier concept and British attitudes to the typhoid eradication methods being used by Robert Koch in Germany, given the context of steadily falling British typhoid death rates. A number of typhoid outbreaks are considered in illustrating the continuing dominance of epidemiological approaches to disease outbreaks, with bacteriological analysis playing an ancillary role during the inter-war period, while the case of Southern Ireland illustrates the effectiveness of the new methods of control where they could be applied in a manageable geographical compass.
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