This chapter looks at encoding schemes which are necessary to put intelligence in the text. The purpose of encoding within a text is to provide information which will assist a computer program to perform functions on that text. The information embedded in the text is variously called encoding, markup, or tagging, although the term ‘tagging’ is also used somewhat more narrowly in corpus linguistics to denote encoding for grammatical categories and possibly other linguistic features. Exactly what markup scheme to use depends very much on the nature of the project. For a digital library or large and long-term project, it makes sense to use SGML, or rather XML, for which there is likely to be more support. The TEI is a very good starting point for humanities material and can be used as a basis for the development of a specialized encoding scheme.
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