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Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1Metaphysics and Epistemology$
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Michael Brownstein and Jennifer Saul

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198713241

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198713241.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 27 November 2021

Revisiting Current Causes of Women’s Underrepresentation in Science

Revisiting Current Causes of Women’s Underrepresentation in Science

(p.265) 2.5 Revisiting Current Causes of Women’s Underrepresentation in Science
Implicit Bias and Philosophy, Volume 1

Carole J. Lee

Oxford University Press

Given the body of experimental studies on gender bias in the evaluation of women in academia (e.g. Steinpreis, Anders, and Ritzke, 1999; Moss-Racusin et al., 2012), many expected implicit bias to be a major cause of women’s underrepresentation in math-intensive sciences (STEM). However, large-scale correlational studies have discovered no gender disparities in real-life hiring and manuscript and grant outcomes (Ceci and Williams, 2011). Why might this be so? This chapter discusses methodological challenges that go beyond classic problems of external validity in extrapolating psychological effects and explanations to scientific communities. These problems include more complex external validity issues raised by the introduction of multi-process models of cognition (e.g. implicit versus explicit social cognition) as well as the reflexive role that folk and experimental theories of social psychology play in guiding the behavior of scientists at the individual and community level.

Keywords:   implicit bias, gender, gender bias, STEM, science, external validity, manuscript review, grant review, hiring

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