An essential feature of achievement is that the process be related to the product in a certain way. According to the view suggested in this chapter, the process must cause the product in a way that is sufficiently competent. This chapter develops an account of what comes to be called competent causation. According to the view, an agent causes an outcome competently to the extent that she has a sufficient amount of the right sort of understanding about her process and its relationship to the product. One must not only understand the steps of the process, but also have a sufficient grasp of how the steps fit together. In short, one might say that to cause something competently is to know what you’re doing. This view captures that the product of an achievement can’t be the result of too much good luck.
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