The crisis has resulted in an increased dominance of the executive at both national and supranational levels, including executive expert bodies such as the Commission and the ECB. This dominance of the executive—and, especially, of national executives—has manifested itself in several ways. In general, there has been a resurgence of intergovernmentalism, or the adoption of decisions by means other than the Community method. This chapter analyses the causes and facets of this resurgence. It pays special attention to the adoption of measures of international law outside the EU legal framework; to the use of EU institutions in this ambit; and to the consequences of executive dominance for democratic and judicial control.
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