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The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses, Third Edition$
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Peter J. Hogarth

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780198716549

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198716549.001.0001

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(p.211) 11 Impacts
The Biology of Mangroves and Seagrasses, Third Edition

Peter J. Hogarth

Oxford University Press

Mangroves and seagrasses supply valuable goods and services, including extraction of timber, food, and medicinal products, support for fisheries and aquaculture, and coastal protection. Mangroves have been valued at US$14 500/ha/year, seagrasses at US$27 000/ha/year. Despite this, both habitats are threatened. Mangrove losses currently run at around 1%/year, mainly through conversion to agriculture or aquaculture ponds, changes in hydrology, or destructive overexploitation. Sustainable management of mangrosve and seagrass resources is, however, possible, the forests of the Matang (Malaysia) being an example. Restoration of mangrove and seagrass habitats is also possible.

Keywords:   coastal protection, economic, goods and services, impact, mangrove, pollution, restoration, seagrass, shrimp farming, sustainable management

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