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Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine$
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Barry Halliwell and John M. C. Gutteridge

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780198717478

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717478.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 22 January 2022

Antioxidants from the diet

Antioxidants from the diet

(p.153) Chapter 4 Antioxidants from the diet
Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine

Barry Halliwell

John M.C. Gutteridge

Oxford University Press

This chapter describes how nutrition and diet affect oxidative damage in vivo, with a particular focus on the disease-protective effects of fruits and vegetables, and the extent to which they are explained by antioxidants (and pro-oxidants!) and other constituents (e.g. allicin, sulphoraphane) in the diet. The roles of vitamin C (ascorbate) as an antioxidant and enzyme cofactor (e.g. in collagen synthesis), vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols), carotenoids (β‎-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, and others), and phenols, especially the flavonoids (including quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate), monophenols, curcumin, caffeic acid, hydroxyhydroquinone, hydroxytyrosol, and resveratrol are described. Evidence for the antioxidant roles of these dietary constituents in vivo is critically evaluated, e.g. in relation to human ataxia caused by defects in vitamin E metabolism and the suggested effects of polyphenols on the brain and vascular system. Interactions of vitamins E and C are described. The chapter also reviews epidemiological studies examining the possible preventative roles of antioxidants against cancer, neurodegenerative disease, stroke, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in humans. Studies examined include the Honolulu heart study, the Nurses’ Health Study, the Health Professionals’ Study, EURAMIC, the Physicians‘ Health Study, CARET, HOPE, GISSI, SUVIMAX, VEAPS, WAVE, Linxian Study, SELECT, VITAL, SHEEP, the Shibata Study, and the Zutphen Study. Reasons for the variable results obtained in different studies are discussed. The effects of other dietary constituents on oxidative damage, including thiamine, vitamin D, Mg2+, homocysteine, and PUFAs are described. The chapter concludes with recommendations about what humans can do to decrease oxidative damage and stay healthy.

Keywords:   β‎-Carotene, carotenoid, epidemiology, flavonoid, lycopene, nutrition and diet, preventative role of antioxidants, tocopherols, Vitamin C, Vitamin E

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