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Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine$
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Barry Halliwell and John M. C. Gutteridge

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780198717478

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717478.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 05 December 2021

Reactive species can be poisonous

Reactive species can be poisonous

Their role in toxicology

Chapter:
(p.463) Chapter 9 Reactive species can be poisonous
Source:
Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine
Author(s):

Barry Halliwell

John M.C. Gutteridge

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717478.003.0009

This chapter describes the roles played by free radicals and other reactive species (RS) in toxicology, and whether antioxidants can protect. It begins with an overview of the metabolism of xenobiotics and the various mechanisms by which RS can contribute to their toxicity. Toxins whose mechanisms of action in relation to RS-induced damage are described include carbon tetrachloride (whose hepatotoxicity is due to trichloromethyl radical formation and consequent lipid peroxidation), chloroform, halothane, bromobenzene, bromotrichloromethane, pentachlorophenol, TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin), hexachlorobenzene, paraquat, diquat, menadione, dicoumarol, juglone, plumbagin, lawsone, manganese, methcathione, isoproterenol, α‎-methylDOPA, benzene, aniline, pyocanin, alloxan, nitro- and azo-compounds, streptozotocin, ethanol, acrolein, allyl alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, Ecstasy, amphetamines, paracetamol, phenacetin, chlorine, ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, cigarette smoke, fire smoke, PM2.5, welding fumes, fly ashes, asbestos (including the role of iron in its carcinogenicity), silica and coal dust, arsenic, lead, cobalt, mercury, nickel, cadmium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, aluminium, and zinc. The ability of antibiotics to be pro-oxidant (e.g. the polyenes, gentamicin) or antioxidant (e.g. the tetracyclines, especially minocycline) is described and related to their anti-bacterial actions. There is a discussion of the mechanisms by which ionizing radiation damages cells, and how radioprotective agents (especially GSH and other thiols) work. This is further discussed in relation to food irradiation, and radioresistant organisms (e.g. rotifers, Deinococcus radiodurans). The mechanism by which hypoxia decreases radiation damage is presented and related to radiotherapy for cancer treatment. The history of the toxic oil syndrome, which led to formation of the global Societies for Free Radical Research, is presented.

Keywords:   antibiotics, carbon tetrachloride, cigarette smoke, ethanol and antioxidants, hypoxia, paracetamol, paraquat, radiation, toxic oil syndrome, toxicology

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