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Popes and Jews, 1095–1291$
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Rebecca Rist

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198717980

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198717980.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 21 April 2021

The Impact of the Crusades

The Impact of the Crusades

(p.101) 3 The Impact of the Crusades
Popes and Jews, 1095–1291

Rebecca Rist

Oxford University Press

With the onset of the crusades and the resulting mob violence, the ‘Constitutio pro Iudaeis’ was increasingly re-issued in light of a new recognition of the need for Jews to be protected. From the eleventh century popes called for crusades against Muslims in the Near East and pagans in the Baltic, and, from the thirteenth century, against heretics and political enemies of the Church. Although they never authorized crusades against Jews, Jewish communities suffered indirectly from papal calls for crusading. This chapter emphasizes how living in Christian Europe, but no part of its mainstream culture, Jews were particularly vulnerable to the violence which papal authorization of crusades often provoked. Yet from the eleventh century onwards crusading itself affected papal attitudes: comparable with heretics, they lived in Europe as an ‘internal’ and marginalized minority group of non-Catholics.

Keywords:   Constitutio pro Iudaeis, protection, crusades, Muslims, Near East, violence, minority groups, pagans, heretics, political enemies

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