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Images of TimeMind, Science, Reality$
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George Jaroszkiewicz

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198718062

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198718062.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 21 April 2021

Discrete time

Discrete time

(p.239) 23 Discrete time
Images of Time

George Jaroszkiewicz

Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses difference equations and how they arise from the temporal discretization of differential equations, emphasizing that temporal discretization is not a unique process. It shows how discrete dynamical systems can be described by difference equations. To do this the chapter first explains how discrete time mechanics action sums are related to continuous time action integrals, introducing the concept of system function. System functions are the discrete time analogues of Lagrangians in continuous time mechanics. The chapter discusses their relationship to Hamilton’s principal function. It uses a discrete time action principle to derive the discrete time equations of motion associated with a given system function. The chapter discusses Caldirola’s microverse model of the electron and show how Maxwell’s continuous time partial differential equations for electrodynamics can be discretized in terms of discrete-time difference equations.

Keywords:   difference equations, temporal discretization, discrete dynamical systems, action sums, system functions, Hamilton’s principal function, Cadzow equations of motion, Caldirola’s microverse, discrete time electrodynamics

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