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Auditory Temporal Processing and its Disorders$
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Jos J. Eggermont

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780198719090

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2015

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198719090.001.0001

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General neurological disorders with temporal processing deficits

General neurological disorders with temporal processing deficits

(p.269) Chapter 15 General neurological disorders with temporal processing deficits
Auditory Temporal Processing and its Disorders

Jos Eggerrmont

Oxford University Press

Synchronization of oscillatory responses in the beta- and gamma-band is involved in a variety of cognitive functions, such as perceptual grouping, attention-dependent stimulus selection, working memory, and perceptual awareness. Here, we review evidence that autism (ASD), schizophrenia and epilepsy show temporal processing deficits that are associated with abnormal neural synchronization. There are close correlations between abnormalities in neuronal synchronization and cognitive dysfunctions, emphasizing the importance of temporal coordination. ASD is a developmental disability that affects social behavior and language acquisition. Current theories and experimental data converge on the notion that dysfunctional integrative mechanisms in autism may be the result of reduced neural synchronization. There is also consistent evidence that neural synchrony in the β‎- and γ‎-frequency ranges is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. The cognitive abnormalities in schizophrenic patients include fragmented perception, erroneous binding of features, deficits in attention, impaired working memory, delusions, and hallucinations. Synchronization of oscillatory activity in the beta- and gamma-band frequency range is associated with cognitive functions that are disturbed in schizophrenia patients. Epilepsy is a common and diverse set of chronic neurological disorders characterized by seizures. Seizures may not only be a consequence of heightened neuronal excitability such as results from an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. Alterations of the mechanisms that support the oscillatory patterning and the synchronization of neuronal activity appear to be equally important. Both the reduced synchronization preceding some forms of epileptic activity and the enhanced synchronization associated with seizures proper go along with the disturbance of cognitive functions. There are suggestive genetic links between schizophrenia and epilepsy, between schizophrenia and dyslexia via magnocellular deficits, and between autism and SLI through impaired language.

Keywords:   brain rhythms, neural synchronization, temporal integration deficits, human, animal models, gamma oscillations, temporal order judgment, temporal modulation transfer functions

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