This introductory chapter presents the objectives and structure of the volume and a short presentation of each chapter. The main objective of the book is to present evidence from neuroscientific and neurocognitive research to critically appraise the concept of human cognitive enhancement by psychopharmacological drugs (and some other technologies) as well as the the various claims made about its possibilities. The Introduction explains why this evidence is needed and how the analysis of empirical research could contribute to the ethical debate on cognitive enhancement. It explains the book’s two main sections: the first reviews the (experimental and other empirical) evidence regarding the possible improvements of human cognition by the use of neuropharmacological drugs and the limitations and possible side effects from use of these drugs for enhancement purposes. The second section includes chapters about various ethical, philosophical, legal, and policy issues of the use of neuropharmaceutical drugs for cognitive enhancement.
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