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Science, the State, and the CityBritain's Struggle to Succeed in Biotechnology$
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Geoffrey Owen and Michael M. Hopkins

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198728009

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198728009.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 25 November 2020

A New Way of Making Medicines

A New Way of Making Medicines

Chapter:
(p.1) 1 A New Way of Making Medicines
Source:
Science, the State, and the City
Author(s):

Geoffrey Owen

Michael M. Hopkins

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198728009.003.0001

This chapter introduces the term biotechnology and explains why it has been the subject of intense interest on the part of governments and investors around the world. It reviews the scientific advances, including the deciphering of DNA by Watson and Crick, which paved the way for the emergence of biotechnology, and describes the two key breakthroughs—recombinant DNA and monoclonal antibodies—which took place in the US and Britain in the 1970s. It draws some comparisons between biotechnology and semiconductors, noting the important role played in both sectors by newly formed entrepreneurial firms, and the dominance of the US. It also discusses the changing relationship between the new biotechnology firms and the established pharmaceutical companies.

Keywords:   scientific breakthroughs, DNA, monoclonal antibodies, medicine, pharmaceuticals, Boyer and Cohen, Milstein and Kohler, institutions, innovation ecosystem

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