The final chapter provides a summary of the shaping of two penological identities, showing how different conceptions of individualization, social defence, and prevention led the European and US legal systems to adopt diverse forms of preventive detention or indefinite segregation. It shows how the inherent tensions between individualization of punishment and individual safeguards have not been solved even after World War II, and examines how recent decisions of the European Court of Human Rights have once again brought up longstanding questions about the constitutional legitimacy and limits of preventive justice and detention. The chapter argues for the contribution of comparative legal history to the understating of current penological matters.
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