This chapter presents a derivation of the neutrino oscillation probability and discusses why this gives the correct result despite some dubious assumptions being made. The upper limits on neutrino masses are reviewed. The evidence for muon neutrino oscillations from atmospheric neutrinos is described, as well as the confirmation from a long-baseline neutrino experiment. The evidence for electron neutrino oscillations is reviewed, with emphasis on evidence independent of the solar model. Laboratory confirmation using antineutrinos from nuclear reactors is also described. The discrepancy between the solar neutrino results and the simple vacuum oscillation model is reviewed. The Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein (MSW) effect is outlined and shown to provide an explanation. Measurements of the third mixing angle θ13 are described. Finally, the possibility of CP violation in the neutrino sector is reviewed and there is a discussion of how this might account for the observed matter–antimatter asymmetry in the Universe.
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