This chapter starts with an overview of collider detectors before describing interactions of particles with matter, which provides a physics foundation for the design of particle detectors. Ionization, multiple scattering, transition and Čerenkov radiation by charged particles, as well as bremsstrahlung and nuclear interactions of high-energy hadrons, are described. This is followed by an explanation of how energy loss in matter leads to signal generation, such as by moving charges in electric fields and light emission in scintillators. Detectors for photons, detectors for reconstruction of tracks of charged particles (with the use of magnets), such as wire chambers and silicon detectors, and electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters to measure energies of particles and jets of particles are described and their use for particle identification explained. The chapter concludes with an explanation of the role of triggers and two examples of detector systems: the ATLAS and CMS detectors at the LHC.
Keywords: ionization, Čerenkov and transition radiation, multiple scattering, wire chamber, silicon detector, scintillator, bremsstrahlung, electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters, nuclear interaction, trigger
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