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Particle Physics in the LHC Era$
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Giles Barr, Robin Devenish, Roman Walczak, and Tony Weidberg

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198748557

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: March 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198748557.001.0001

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Dynamic quarks

Dynamic quarks

(p.235) 9 Dynamic quarks
Particle Physics in the LHC Era

G. Barr

R. Devenish

R. Walczak

T. Weidberg

Oxford University Press

In this chapter, the Rutherford scattering formula is derived using quantum mechanics. The kinematics of the quark–parton model (QPM) are described. The differential cross section for neutrino and antineutrino scattering on electrons is derived. This is generalized to give the QPM prediction for the cross section for scattering on nuclei. The key experiments supporting this model are reviewed with emphasis on the importance of scaling. Indirect and direct evidence for gluons is described. An elementary introduction to quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is given. The concept of running coupling constants is introduced in the context of QED and QCD. The concept of asymptotic freedom is used to explain the success of the QPM. Scaling violations are explained in terms of QCD, and a description is given of how the data can be used to determine the gluon distribution function. Finally, the QPM is generalized to the case of hadron–hadron scattering.

Keywords:   Rutherford scattering, scaling, quark–parton model, running coupling constants, gluon, quantum chromodynamics

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