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Bolzano's Logical System$
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Ettore Casari

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198788294

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198788294.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 22 October 2021

Elementary Level (A): Ideas

Elementary Level (A): Ideas

(p.20) 2 Elementary Level (A): Ideas
Bolzano's Logical System

Ettore Casari

Oxford University Press

This chapter develops the theory of ideas starting from the basic relation occurring between ideas and objects: reference. By means of this, ideas are partitioned into objectual (referring to at least one object) and objectless. With respect to objectual ideas, questions of extension are discussed and the traditional material relations among ideas are examined in detail: compatibility, inclusion, equivalence, contrariety, contradictoriness, etc. Moreover, the particular idea ‘something’ and the principal ways to obtain complex ideas from simpler ones are considered. In this chapter and in Chapter 3, the reconstruction of Bolzano’s theory of lectological entities is developed on the elementary level, i.e. disregarding two facts: (a) that both ideas and propositions are objects and may be referred to thus by ideas and may be subjects of propositions, respectively; (b) that qualities are objects and so may be in turn bearers of qualities.

Keywords:   elementary level, idea, reference, extension, material relations among ideas

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