This chapter discusses the life and work of two scholars, Nakae Tōju and Kumazawa Banzan, both of whom were mavericks in their own way. Tōju was unhappy with Zhu Xi’s Neo-Confucianism and preferred the more intuitive approach of Ming scholars such as Wang Yangming and Wang Ji. His response was to opt out of the system and become an independent scholar and teacher, not answerable to any daimyō. He was known as a tough but fair teacher, and was a strong advocate of the need to adapt Chinese ideals to Japanese realities. Banzan, on the other hand, although equally as disillusioned with how power was being practised, fully engaged with domain authorities and as a result constantly clashed with his masters. Tōju became seen as a ‘sage’ who had retired from the world; Banzan, on the other hand, was to die under house arrest.
Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.