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Refugee EconomiesForced Displacement and Development$
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Alexander Betts, Louise Bloom, Josiah Kaplan, and Naohiko Omata

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780198795681

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2016

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198795681.001.0001

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The history of refugees and development

The history of refugees and development

(p.13) 2 The history of refugees and development
Refugee Economies

Alexander Betts

Louise Bloom

Josiah Kaplan

Josiah Naohiko

Oxford University Press

This chapter offers a comprehensive history of development-based approaches to refugees between 1919 and the present day. Such approaches are not new but their record has been mixed with significant successes and failures. These cases are used to tease out lessons for present and future approaches to ‘refugees and development’. Based on extensive archival research, the chapter examines several phases, including promotion of refugee self-reliance under the League of Nations during the 1920s, zonal development in postcolonial Africa in the 1960s, the International Conferences on Refugees in Africa (ICARA I and II) of 1981 and 1984, the International Conference on Refugees in Central America (CIREFCA) of 1987–95, UNHCR’s Convention Plus initiative (2003–5), and the Solutions Alliance (2014–). One of the weaknesses of many of these initiatives, it argues, is that they have been state-centric, sidelining the capacity of refugees themselves and the potential role of market-based approaches.

Keywords:   history, refugees, development, LNHCR, UNHCR, ICARA, CIREFCA, Convention Plus, Solutions Alliance

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