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The Practice of Industrial PolicyGovernment—Business Coordination in Africa and East Asia$

John Page and Finn Tarp

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198796954

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2017

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198796954.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 06 December 2021

(p.295) Index

(p.295) Index

Source:
The Practice of Industrial Policy
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

The Practice of Industrial Policy

Page and Tarp

Abdullah, King250
Abramowitz, M.127
accountability11, 67, 194
Acemoglu, D.229
Ackah, C.259
Africa
applying the Chinese model160–5
catch-up44
communication channels161
constraints on competitiveness147
coordination efforts11–14
decentralization161
education41, 58–9
entrepreneurship161–3
first movers163
government-private relationship152
growth42–3
health systems58–9
islands of success81, 96
lessons from South Korea120–1
local governments161
population density90
regional diversity93
special economic zones (SEZs)13, 236–7, 240–7
state capability80–96
technical support162
Africa Centre for Energy Policy (ACEP)270
agglomerations3, 65, 153–7
Altenburg, T.194
American Chamber of Commerce171
Amsden, A. H.112, 127
Andrews, M.90
Appiah-Kubi, K.259
Ariffin, N.128
Arinori, M.54
Aryeetey, E.12, 14–16, 264
Asante, E. A.266
Asian financial crisis177
aspiration46–8
Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)46, 60, 74
Atkinson, A.31
backing winners5, 157–60, 163–4
Baeg Im, H.91
benchmarking55
Bhorat, H.12–14
Black Economic Empowerment (BEE)228–9
Blankenburg, S.193
Bloom, N.65
border fixity90
Botswana219
Brazil
bureaucracy93
growth trap215–16
grupo executivo93
human capital219
National Development Bank (BNDE)93
Petrobrás93
state capacity96
Buchanan, J. M.238
bureaucracy92–3, 193, 243
business associations67
business discipline108
business-government relationshipsee state-business relations (SBRs)
Buur, L.67, 71, 73
Cali, M.69
Cambodia44, 174
capital
human41, 57–9, 219–20
and labour225–6
markets5, 26–7
capitalists, rent-seeking and developmental195
capture6, 9, 13, 66, 292
avoiding24, 33
and coordination6, 13
political198–201
state92, 94
Cassim, A.12–14
(p.296) Chang, H.-J.84–5
Chang Myon106, 108–10, 114
Chenery, H.127
Cheong, K. C.136
Chiang Kai-shek104
China44, 111, 131, 219
aspiration47–8
backing winners5, 157–60, 163–4
central government153–4
cluster strategy153–7
comparative advantage26
credit access148–9
decentralized13, 145–65
exports145, 218
footwear industry159–60
foreign direct investment (FDI)147
government-private partnership152–3
growth214–15
industrial parks148, 156
input supply147
international SBRs73
investment216
knowledge spill-overs158
land policy148, 154–5
light manufacturing146–51
local governments151–3, 155–7
National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC)7
policy failure159
private sector145–6
provincial government154–5
skills150–1
special economic zones (SEZs)235, 247, 251
state learning56
trade logistics147, 149–50
Choi Kyuha115
Chu, W. W.127
Chun Doo Hwan115–18
Chung Ju-yung115
Churchill, W.104
climate change29
cluster policies153–7, 221
Cohen, W. M.56
collaborationsee cooperation
colonial institutions90
commitment9, 52–6
Presidential Investors' Advisory Councils (PIACs)285–6
commodities34
communications52–3, 227–8
comparative advantage6, 26, 31–2, 246
Africa44–6, 48–9, 59–60
definition31, 45
Ethiopia196–7, 206, 208–9
competence52–3
coordination40–60, 67, 95
and capture6, 13
decentralized145–65
definition53
Ethiopia198–201
public-private2–8
and state capability80–96
within government13 see also state-business relations (SBRs)
corruption272
private sector107, 263
state110–11, 193, 238, 256, 261–2
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON)174–5
credibility52–3
credit148–9, 200–1
Daewoo115
Dahlman, C. J.127
de-industrialization44–5
deliberation councils7, 67, 72
Deng Xiaoping47, 145
Department for International Development (DFID)75
Desalegn, H.199
development
and structural change46–59
successes and failures84–5 see also growth
developmental state91, 93–4, 120
democratic117–18, 121
empirical foundations127
and industrialization104–7
limited116–17
Dinh, H.5, 9–10, 13
discipline67, 194
distorted incentives234, 240–5, 248–9
Dominican Republic235
Doner, R.66
Dubai250
East African Submarine Cable System (EASSY) Protocol284
East Asia
export-led growth25, 27
market failure correction26–7
political instability90
strategic coordination8–11
successful policies40–1
economic stability36, 116
social cost of instability28
education30, 35, 41, 57–8, 136 see also human capital
Egypt70, 235
El Salvador235
Elkan, W.161
embedded autonomy6–7, 193–4
embeddedness67
(p.297) employment124–5, 132, 213–14
entrepreneurship150, 161–3
Ethiopia191–209
basic metal and engineering industry (BMEI)16, 201–7
Chambers of Commerce and Sector Associations (ECCS)279–80
comparative advantage196–7, 206, 208–9
coordination198–201
credit198, 200–1
cut flower industry5, 14–15, 164, 195–201, 208
Development Bank of Ethiopia (DBE)200
Ethio-Horti Share Company200
Ethiopian Association of Basic Metal and Engineering Industries (EABMEI)207
Ethiopian Horticulture Development Agency (EHDA)198
Ethiopian Horticulture Producers and Exporters Association (EHPEA)197, 199–200
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF)195
exports149, 195, 206
footwear industry162
foreign direct investment (FDI)198
foreign exchange200
Government and Business Community Joint Consultation Forum12
Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP)195
import-substitution195, 201, 206, 208–9
industrial policy195, 208–9
Kaizen202
land policy201–2
leadership198
Metal and Engineering Corporation (METEC)202
Metal Industry Development Institute (MIDI)202
Ministry of Trade and Industry (MOTI)280
National Business Consultative Forum280
political capture198–201
Presidential Investors' Advisory Council (PIAC)279–80, 284–92
profit tax201–2
Public-Private Consultative Forum (PPCF)280
state-owned enterprises (SOEs)202
Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP)195
trade barriers206
transport198
European Chamber of Commerce171
European Union (EU)196
Evans, P. B.6, 67, 82–3, 85, 91–3, 96, 193
exchange rate policy32, 34
export orientation10, 109–10, 112, 119, 131–6, 145, 206, 208
export-processing zones (EPZs)235 see also free-trade zones (FTZs); special economic zones (SEZs)
externalities28–9, 123, 131–3
Fafchamps, M.162
Farole, T.8–9, 13, 15, 17
Figueiredo, P. N.128
financial crisis, global126
financial market deregulation24
Fine, B.222
Five-Year Economic Development Plans (FYEDPs)6
foreign direct investment (FDI)
China147
Ethiopia198
Ghana261, 264, 266
incentives169
Malaysia123–5, 131–3, 134
Viet Nam169, 175, 177
fragile statessee state weakness
Gebreeyesus, M.5, 12, 14, 16
Gelb, S.229
Gerschenkron, A.127
Ghana12, 244–5, 246
aid264
Armed Forces Revolutionary Council261
Association of Ghana Industries (AGI)16, 257, 264
Association of Ghanaian Businessmen260
Business Assistance Fund267
Capital Investment Act258
Centre for Democracy and Development (CDD)264
Companies Code258
comparative advantage266
Corporate Village Enterprise (COVE)267
Council of Indigenous Business Associations (CIBA)263
Crusade for the Protection of Ghanaian Enterprises260
Economic Ghanaianization260
Export Development and Investment Fund (EDIF)267
(p.298) Exporter's Forum256
fiscal incentives246–7
foreign direct investment (FDI)261, 264, 266
Ghana Business Act260
Ghana Employers' Association (GEA)257
Ghana Enterprises Development Decree261
Ghana Investment Promotion Centre (GIPC)256, 264–5
Ghana Investors Advisory Council (GIAC)268
Ghana National Chamber of Commerce (GNCC)262, 264
Ghana National Chamber of Commerce and Industry (GNCCI)257
indigenization260–1
Industrial Development Organization258
Industrial Relations Act258
Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA)264
Investment Policy Decree261
local capacity273
local content14, 269–70
micro-studies69, 74
Microfinance and Small Loans Centre (MASLOC)267
Ministry for Private Sector Development265
Ministry of Trade and Industry (MOTI)267
National Liberation Council (NLC)259–60
National Policy on Public-Private Partnership269
National Redemption Council (NRC)259–61
nationalization261
NDC268, 271
New Patriotic Party (NPP)265–8, 271
oil269–70
post-independence258–9
post-military regimes263–5
Presidential Investors' Advisory Council (PIAC)277–8, 284–5
Presidential Special Initiatives (PSIs)265–6
Private Enterprise Federation (PEF)16, 257, 264, 268
Private Sector Advisory Council (PSAC)269
Private Sector Advisory Group (PSAG)262–3
Private Sector Consultative Committee (PSCC)262–3
Private Sector Roundtable (PSR)263–4
Protection against Unfair Competition Act256–7
Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC)261–3
Public Utilities Regulatory Commission Act256
Regional Development Corporation260
state-business relationship (SBR)5, 255–73
state-owned enterprises (SOEs)259
taxation268, 271
under military regimes259–63
Venture Capital Fund267
Gill, I.214
Gisselquist, R. M.8, 13, 90
global value chains3, 5, 217–18
Goh, K. L.136
Goh Keng Swee55
government
as black box238
coordination within13
costly mistakes245–6
definition82
failure66
officials' commitment9
perfectly informed238–9
role23–4, 153–4 see also state
grabbing hand66
Greenwald, B.28
growth
and education57–8
and employment213–14
and investment216–17
per capita215–16 see also development
growth theory, endogenous37
growth traps214–20
Hausmann, R.5, 64, 194
Hayek, F. A.239
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)268
Heilmann, S.56
helping hand4–5, 17, 66
Herbst, J.90
Hewlett Packard132
Hirsch, A.12–14
Hirschman, A.24
Honduras235
Hong Kong73
human capital41, 57–9, 219–20 see also education
Hyundai115, 118–19
import-substitution27–8, 132, 195, 201, 206, 208
incentives18
distorted234, 240–5, 248–9
fiscal246–7
India44
case-study evidence71
growth214–16
micro-studies69–70
technology zones246
Indonesia7, 9, 216, 285
(p.299) industrial policy
analytic framework128–30
brief history of64–5
definition24, 82, 126–7
effective91
evaluation24, 49
experimentation10, 191–209
feedback11
focus9–10
implementation50–3
literature193–4
macroeconomics as36
national control15–16
and public-private coordination2–8
risk taking in25
state role in82–5
and structural transformation1–2, 27–8
theories of126–8
and trade policy31–4
industrialization104–7
inequality3, 29, 211
of income41, 219, 223
and rent-seeking223–4
infant economy24, 31–3
information3, 5–6
information and communications technology (ICT)41
intellectual property rights (IPR)33–4
international competitiveness218
International Finance Corporation (IFC)278
International Monetary Fund (IMF)29, 71, 262–3, 268, 275–92
investment
in education57–8
and growth216–17
in infrastructure35
promotion244
Ireland244
Jackson, R. H.90
Jansen, M. B.54
Japan9, 109, 113
catch-up127
Charter Oath46–7
colonialism103–4, 111
Economic Planning Agency (EPA)51
international SBRs73
Ministry of Finance (MOF)51
Ministry of Industry and Trade (MITI)51, 72
state learning54
Japanese Business Association (JBA)171
Johnson, C.127
Johnson, O.194
Jordan250
Kaldor, N.127
Kenya13, 198, 219, 244
cut flower industry164–5
Special Economic Zone (SEZ)236
Khan, M.193
Kharas, H.214
Kim, E. M.6, 7–11, 13, 18
Kim Chong Pil108
Kim Il-sung105
Kingombe, C.63
knowledge
acquisition53–7
inadequate234, 240, 245–9
spill-overs158, 162
Koehler, H.275–6, 285, 292
Kohli, A.82, 85, 91, 93–4
Kohli, H.214
Korean War103, 105
Kufuor, J. A.15, 265, 268, 285
labour
and capital225–6
imported136
low-skill29, 226
Lall, S.127
land policy148, 201–2, 242
Latin America27, 34, 64, 95, 111, 218, 235
Le Dang Doanh7
leadership46, 48
in Ethiopia198
and growth64
political67
Presidential Investors' Advisory Councils (PIACs)278
strong14–15
in Viet Nam181–2
learning3, 5, 23–37
by doing25
and imperfect appropriability28
and institution creation24
institutional11
instruments for37
private sector56–7
society29–31
spill-overs28, 31
state53–6
underinvestment in27
Lee Byung-chull111
Lee Kuan Yew47, 55–6
Lemma, A.4–5, 7, 12
Lesotho236, 242, 244
Levithan, D. A.56
liberalization116, 266
Liberia236
Lin, J. Y.5–7, 11, 45, 64–5, 83–4, 94
Loh Kin Wah135
Lucas, R. E.42, 57
(p.300) Madagascar236–7
Mahajan, S.223
Mahathir135
Malaysia9, 51, 215–16, 285
Action Plan for Industrial Technology Development (APITD)124
catch-up136–41
currency134
education136, 140
electronic industries123–42
employment124–5, 132
exchange rate124
exports10, 131–6, 218
firm ownership129
foreign direct investment (FDI)123–5, 131–4
free-trade zones (FTZ)123, 131–3
grants124
import-substitution sector132
imported labour136
Industrial Master Plans (IMPs)6, 125, 131, 133, 135–6, 141
licensed manufacturing warehouse (LMW)123, 131–3
Malaysian Institute of Microelectronics Systems (MIMOS)134, 138, 141
Malaysian Technology Development Corporation (MTDC)138, 140–1
New Economic Policy (NEP)123
Penang Skills Development Centre (PSDC)137–8
Performance Management and Delivery Unit7
Pioneer Industry Ordinance (PIO)130–1
R&D grants136, 139–41
technological upgrading135–41
VLSI technology135
managerial skills150
Mann, M.90–1
Manning, C.229
manufacturing26, 145–51, 226
Marcos109
markets45
failure3, 5, 66
Marx, K.127
Mauritius69, 74–5, 165, 236, 245
Maxfield, S.67
Mazzucato, M.25
Mbeki, T.12
Meles Zenawi198–9, 285
Moberg, L.8–9, 13, 15, 17
Mobutu Sese Seko91–2
Morocco70, 235
Morris Chang135
multinational corporations (MNCs)111, 123
Murray, D.54
Museveni15, 286
Myanmar132
national control15–16
nationalization107, 261
neoclassical theory82–3
New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)18
New Structural Economics (NSE)45–6, 81, 83–5
Nguyen Tan Dung179
Nigeria13, 244, 246
land policy242
neopatrimonial state94
Oil & Gas Free Zone Authority (OGFZA)243
Nixon, R.113
Nkrumah259–60
North Korea105, 113
official development assistance (ODA)
capability trap90
external control through15–16
Ghana264
South Korea104, 107, 113
Viet Nam170, 174
oil269–70
openness24
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)29
Development Assistance Committee (DAC)103
PPD Handbook75
Owoo, N.12, 14–16
Page, J.12, 15–17
Page, P.65, 67
Park Chung Hee9, 54–5, 106–9, 111–16, 285
Pham, C. L.182
Phan Van Khai178–81, 183
Philippines109, 131
exports218
growth215–16
infrastructure projects245–6
picking winners2, 5, 33, 155, 158, 193, 221
Polanyi, K.82
political capture198–201
political economy32–3
of African Special Economic Zones (SEZs)240–7
of reform236
robust framework234, 239–40
poverty
elimination103–4
escape from52
persistent106, 211
reduction35, 41, 59, 85, 120, 161, 266–7
Presidential Investors' Advisory Councils (PIACs)15, 71–2, 275–92
blueprint276–7
East African perspective284–90
(p.301) feedback289–91
focus286–8
leadership278
ownership288–9, 291–2
reviews277–8
shortcomings291
working groups277, 279, 281–2, 284, 288–9
Pritchett, L.90
private sector33, 35, 46, 59
China145–6, 152, 157–8, 161, 164
corruption107, 263
Ethiopia198–202, 205–10
Ghana255–69, 271–3
and imports275–92
learning56–7
overview1–4, 6–18
South Africa211–13
South Korea107, 115, 117
Special Economic Zones (SEZs)244, 249
Viet Nam48, 169, 172–3, 175–8, 184–6
privatization83, 221, 259–60, 262
production
for exports65
stages127
structure34
productivity2, 215
total factor (TFP)5
public choice238
public debates248
public-private dialogue (PPD)276
public-private partnership (PPP)266, 269
Quinn, S.162
Qureshi, M.69
Rasiah, R.6, 128, 135
Rawlings, J.12, 265
rent management192–3, 200–1, 209
rent-seeking14, 24, 195, 240–1, 272
by the state238, 256, 261–2
inequality223–4
South Korea229
resource fragmentation242
rewards13–14, 17
Rhee Syngman105–6, 108–10, 114
risk5, 25, 26–7
Robinson, J.229
Robinson, S.127
Rodrik, D.3, 5, 64, 67, 194, 225
Roosevelt, F. D.104
Rosberg, C. G.90
Rosenberg, N.127
Rosenstein-Rodan, P. N.82
rules13, 16–17
Rustomjee, Z.222
Sadun, R.65
Samoa70
Samsung111, 118–19
savings216–17
Schein, E. H.52–3
Schmitz, H.194
Schneider, B. R.66–7, 95
Schumpeter, J. A.37, 127
Selvaratnam, V.136
Sen, K.68, 71, 74, 256
Senegal236, 241, 244, 251
Presidential Investors' Advisory Council (PIAC)281, 284–92
short-termism241–2
Singapore6, 9, 132, 285
aspiration47
Committee on the Future Economy (CFE)50
Committee on Singapore’s Competitiveness (CSC)50
Economic Committee50
Economic Development Board (EDB)52–3, 55
Economic Review Committee (ERC)50
Economic Strategies Committee (ESC)50
productivity movement56–7
Special Economic Zone (SEZ)251
specialization127
state learning55
Strategic Economic Plan (SEP)50
strategy formulation and review49–50
small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)112, 119–20, 169–70
South Africa
African National Conference (ANC)13, 211, 229
apartheid211, 216, 219, 221
case-study evidence70
clusters221
communications sector227–8
Department of Trade and Industry (DTI)221–2, 224
diversification35
exchange rate218
exports217–18
fragmentation224
in a global value chain217–18
Growth Employment and Redistribution (GEAR)221, 223
growth traps211–30
human capital219–20
Industrial Development Corporation212, 220
industrial policy221–2
inequality211, 223
informal sector216
investment224–6
(p.302) labour218, 226
manufacturing226
mineral-energy complex (MEC)222, 224
National Economic Development and Labour Council (NEDLAC)12, 70, 220, 223
National Economic Forum220
policy coordination paradigm222–9
poverty211
Regional Industrial Development Plan (RIDP)221
rent-seeking14, 229
Small and Medium Manufacturing Development Programme (SMMDP)222
Spatial Development Initiative222
Special Economic Zone (SEZ)221, 241–2, 246, 248
trade liberalization218
trade unions223
Transnet National Ports Authority (TNPA)227
transport tariffs227
unemployment211, 216, 224
South Korea9–10, 18, 206, 285
aid104, 107, 113
aspiration47
bank nationalization107
business-government relationship103–21
case-study evidence71
catch-up127
Chaebols113–19
communications sector228
comparative advantage31
defence industry113
democracy8, 116, 117–18
a developmental state104–7, 116–17
Economic Planning Board (EPB)7, 107, 116–17
export-orientation109–10
Five-Year Economic Development Plans (FYEDPs)6, 54, 107, 109–10, 112, 116
growth109–10, 117
Heavy and Chemical Industrialization (HCI)112–16
Illicit Wealth Accumulation Charges108, 110–11
industrialization13
Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST)51
manufacturing110
military coup106–8
Ministry of Finance (MOF)107, 117
Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST)51
Ministry of Trade and Industry (MOTI)107, 111
private business111–12
rural development112
small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)119–20
Social Development Commission11
state learning54–5
state-business relationship110–11
structural change109
sunset industries117
Soviet Union104–5, 239
special economic zones (SEZs)234–51
Africa13, 15, 236–7, 240–7
described235–6
distorted incentives234, 248–9
due diligence analyses249
failures237, 246
feasibility studies248–50
flexible regime249–50
inadequate knowledge234, 245–9
investment promotion244
one-stop shops243–4
political economy implications247
power structure250
shared fiscal proceeds251
South Africa221, 241–2, 246, 248
tax revenue251
transparent deliberation248 see also export-processing zones (EPZs); free-trade zones (FTZ)
Sri Lanka244
state weakness80
in Africa85–91
definition85
historical88–90
and industrial transformation81
lack of bureaucracy92–3
measurement of81
state-business relations (SBRs)192, 194
case-study evidence70–2
China145–65
conditions for success73
definition65–6
econometric studies68–75
and economic performance63–77
effectiveness67, 75, 256
Ghana5, 255–73
indicators74–6
international73–4
in neoclassical theory66
South Korea103–21
theory of65–7 see also coordination
state-owned enterprises (SOEs)111–12, 168
Ethiopia202
Ghana259
Viet Nam168, 170, 173, 183, 185
(p.303) states
authoritarian108–9, 120
capacity7–8, 80–96
capture92, 94
Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) rating87–9
definition82
developmental9, 37, 82–3, 91–3, 104, 107–9, 111–12, 114–21, 127
learning53–6
neopatrimonial94–5
power90–1
predatory82–3, 91–2
Stiglitz, J. E.3, 5, 11, 17, 28–9, 31
structural change
policy framework46–59
role of the state64–5
structural transformation27–8, 109
structuralist economics82
sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)see Africa
Sunkyong115
sunset industries117
supervisor training65
Swaziland219
Syrquin, M.127
Taiwan125, 127, 206, 285
Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI)51–2
Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA)51
Technology Advisory Committee (TAC)51
Tanzania149, 219, 283
Investors’ Round Table282
Presidential Investors' Advisory Council (PIAC)278, 282–3, 285–92
Special Economic Zone (SEZ)13, 242–4
tax3, 24, 72, 107, 171, 182, 205, 223
administration280–1
audits108, 114
breaks131, 134, 139, 147, 164–5, 206, 209, 221, 236, 247
corporate268
evasion110
expenditures246
export35, 284
on financial transactions271
income138, 158
industrial parks160
local government153–4, 156
profit201–2
reform281
revenue154, 247, 251
te Velde, D. W.4–5, 7, 12, 63, 66, 68–9, 74, 76, 256
technology215
capabilities130
change30
deepening139
diffusion31, 41
upgrading128–30, 135–41, 137, 140
Thailand72
Third World Network (TWN)264
trade policy31–4
trade unions223
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)34
Tran Xuan Gia179–80
transparency17, 24, 67, 248, 255
Treichel, V.94
Truong Chinh175
trust67
building11–12, 19
mutual184, 255, 272, 287
of the public112
weakened223
Tullock, G.238
Turkey215–16, 219
Uganda198, 244
Cabinet Implementation Committee285
Energy Equity Fund284
National Backbone Infrastructure project284
Presidential Investors' Advisory Councils (PIAC)15, 278
Presidential Investors' Roundtable (PIRT)283–4, 286–92
unemployment211, 224
United Arab Emirates235
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)83
United States33
Guam Doctrine113
Solyndra25
value chain, global3, 5, 217–18
Van Reenen, J.65
Veblen, T.127
Velasco, A.64
Viet Nam4, 9–10, 44
aid170, 174
aspiration48
case-study evidence70–1
Central Institute of Economic Management (CIEM)178–80
Common Investment Law169
Company Law175, 178
Doi Moi167–8, 175, 178–81, 184
domestic-private enterprises (DPEs)168, 172–3, 176–7, 183
(p.304) foreign direct investment169, 175, 177
foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs)168–73, 183
industrial performance167–86, 171–3
land policy242
Law on Encouraging Foreign Investment175
Law on Enterprise177–8, 180–3
Law on Private Enterprise175, 178
licensing agencies182–3
low value-added trap168
National Steering Committee on Information and Communication Technology (ICT)7–8
policy failures182–4
political ideology169–71, 184
Prime Minister's Research Commission (PMRC)6–7, 11, 178–81, 183, 185–6
private sector emergence173–6
productivity173
small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs)169–70
State Planning Committee181
state-owned enterprises (SOEs)168, 170, 173, 183, 185
Unified Enterprise Law169
Vietnamese Communist Party (VCP)168–9, 183
Vo Van Kiet179
Vu, K. M.5–7, 11
Vu-Thanh, T.-A.4, 6, 10–11
Wade, R.83, 85, 127
Warwick, K.82
Weber, M.258
West Germany47
Whitfield, L.67, 71, 73
Wolfensohn, J.275–6, 285, 292
Woodruff, C.65
Woolcock, M.90
worker skills147, 151, 153, 158–9
World Bank16–17, 67, 71, 75, 262–3, 268, 271–2, 275–92
Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) ratings86–9, 91
Private Investment Promotion Project (PIPP)281
World Bank-IMF Investors Councils13
World Trade Organization (WTO)32, 169–71, 183, 221
Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGI)86
Yoon Po Son106
Young, A. A.127
Zaire85, 91–2
Zambia69, 72–3, 163
Zenawi, M.14
Zimbabwe198, 219
zone planning237