This chapter presents the basic designs and working principles of STM and AFM, as well as an elementary theory of tunneling and the imaging mechanism of atomic resolution. Three elementary theories of tunneling are presented: the one-dimensional Schrödinger's equation in vacuum, the semi-classical approximation, and the Landauer formalism. The relation between the decay constant and the work function, and a general expression of tunneling conductance versus tip-sample distance are derived. A brief summary of experimental facts on the mechanism of atomic resolution STM and AFM is presented, which leads to a picture of interplay between the atomic states of the tip and the sample, as well as the role of partial covalent bonds formed between those electronic states. As an introduction to the concept of equivalence of tunneling and atomic forces, atom and molecule manipulation is briefly presented.
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