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Introduction to Scanning Tunneling MicroscopySecond Edition$
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C. Julian Chen

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780199211500

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211500.001.0001

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Tip Treatment

Tip Treatment

(p.313) Chapter 13 Tip Treatment
Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

C. Julian Chen

Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses various methods for tip treatment. First, a general discussion about the experimental facts of STM and AFM tips is presented, which points to the subtleties and significance of the last few atoms at the tip apex. The standard method of making an STM tip is the electrochemical etching of a tungsten wire. The experimental procedure is described in detail. The study of the tip using field-ion microscopy is outlined. The tungsten tips freshly made from electrochemical etching often do not provide atomic resolution. Ex-situ and in-situ tip treatments are necessary. Several ex-situ tip treatment methods are described, inducing annealing, field evaporation, annealing with a field, and field-assisted reaction with nitrogen. In-situ tip treatment method such as high-field treatment and controlled collision are described. Finally, special tip treatment methods for spin-polarized STM are described.

Keywords:   electrochemical etching, tungsten tip, field-ion microscopy, field evaporation, tip treatment, high-field treatment, controlled collision, spin-polarized STM tips

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