This chapter discusses various methods for tip treatment. First, a general discussion about the experimental facts of STM and AFM tips is presented, which points to the subtleties and significance of the last few atoms at the tip apex. The standard method of making an STM tip is the electrochemical etching of a tungsten wire. The experimental procedure is described in detail. The study of the tip using field-ion microscopy is outlined. The tungsten tips freshly made from electrochemical etching often do not provide atomic resolution. Ex-situ and in-situ tip treatments are necessary. Several ex-situ tip treatment methods are described, inducing annealing, field evaporation, annealing with a field, and field-assisted reaction with nitrogen. In-situ tip treatment method such as high-field treatment and controlled collision are described. Finally, special tip treatment methods for spin-polarized STM are described.
Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.
If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.