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Introduction to Scanning Tunneling MicroscopySecond Edition$
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C. Julian Chen

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780199211500

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211500.001.0001

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Atomic Force Microscopy

Atomic Force Microscopy

(p.349) Chapter 15 Atomic Force Microscopy
Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

C. Julian Chen

Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses atomic force microscopy (AFM), focusing on the methods for atomic force detection. Although the force detection always requires a cantilever, there are two types of modes: the static mode and the dynamic mode. The general design and the typical method of manufacturing of the cantilevers are discussed. Two popular methods of static force detection are presented. The popular dynamic-force detection method, the tapping mode is described, especially the methods in liquids. The non-contact AFM, which has achieved atomic resolution in the weak attractive force regime, is discussed in detail. An elementary and transparent analysis of the principles, including the frequency shift, the second harmonics, and the average tunneling current, is presented. It requires only Newton's equation and Fourier analysis, and the final results are analyzed over the entire range of vibrational amplitude. The implementation is briefly discussed.

Keywords:   atomic force microscope, cantilever, static force detection, dynamic force detection, frequency modulation mode, frequency shift, amplitude modulation mode, non-contact AFM

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