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Introduction to Scanning Tunneling MicroscopySecond Edition$
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C. Julian Chen

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780199211500

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211500.001.0001

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Atomic Forces and Tunneling

Atomic Forces and Tunneling

(p.123) Chapter 5 Atomic Forces and Tunneling
Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

C. Julian Chen

Oxford University Press

This chapter presents a unified theory of tunneling phenomenon and covalent bond force, as a result of the similarity between the Bardeen theory of tunneling and the Herring-Landau theory of the covalent bond. Three general theoretical treatments are presented, which show that tunneling conductance is proportional to the square of the covalent bond interaction energy, or equivalently, the square of covalent bond force. The constant of proportionality is related to the electronic properties of the materials. For the case of a metal tip and a metal sample, an explicit equation contains only measurable physical quantities is derived. Several experimental verifications are presented. The equivalence of covalent bond energy and tunneling conductance provides a theoretical explanation of the threshold resistance observed in atom-manipulation experiments, and points to a method of predicting the threshold resistance for atom manipulation.

Keywords:   covalent bond energy, covalent bond force, tunneling conductance, tunneling resistance, atom manipulation, threshold resistance, principle of equivalence

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