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Introduction to Scanning Tunneling MicroscopySecond Edition$
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C. Julian Chen

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780199211500

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199211500.001.0001

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Atomic-Scale Imaging

Atomic-Scale Imaging

(p.169) Chapter 7 Atomic-Scale Imaging
Introduction to Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

C. Julian Chen

Oxford University Press

This chapter discusses the imaging mechanism of STM and AFM at the atomic scale. Experimental facts show that at atomic resolution, tip electronic states play a key role. Analytic theoretical treatments provide quantitative explanation of the effect of the tip electronic states. On transition-metal tips, first-principle studies unanimously show that d-type tip electronic states dominate the Fermi-level DOS. First-principle studies of the combined tip-sample systems show that for both STM and AFM, the p- and d-type tip electronic states are the keys to understanding the atomic-scale images. The case of spin-polarized STM and the chemical identification of surface atoms are also discussed in terms of tip electronic structure. The chapter concludes with discussions of experimental verifications of the reciprocity principle: at atomic resolution, the role of tip electronic states and the sample electronic states are interchangeable.

Keywords:   imaging mechanism, atomic resolution, tip electronic states, corrugation amplitude, corrugation reversal, spin-polarized STM, chemical identification, reciprocity principle

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