This chapter discusses the physical principle, design, and characterization of piezoelectric scanners, which is the heart of STM and AFM. The concept of piezoelectricity is introduced at the elementary level. Two major piezoelectric materials used in STM and AFM, quartz and lead zirconate titanate ceramics (PZT), are described. After a brief discussion of the tripod scanner and the bimorph, much emphasis is on the most important scanner in STM and AFM: the tube scanner. A step-by-step derivation of the deflection formula is presented. The in-situ testing and calibration method based on pure electrical measurements is described. The formulas of the resonance frequencies are also presented. To compensate the non-linear behavior of the tube scanner, an improved design, the S-scanner, is described. Finally, a step-by-step procedure to repole a depoled piezo is presented.
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