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OrangutansGeographic Variation in Behavioral Ecology and Conservation$
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Serge A. Wich, S Suci Utami Atmoko, Tatang Mitra Setia, and Carel P. van Schaik

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199213276

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213276.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 25 October 2021

Development of independence

Development of independence

Sumatran and Bornean orangutans compared

(p.189) CHAPTER 12 Development of independence

Maria A. van Noordwijk

Simone E.B. Sauren

Nuzuar Abulani Ahbam

Helen C. Morrogh-Bernard

S. Suci Utami Atmoko

Carel P. van Schaik

Oxford University Press

Among known mammals, orangutans have the longest period of dependence and exclusive association between mother and offspring before a younger sibling is born. Comparison of available data on wild Sumatran and Bornean orangutans reveals a similar development of essential survival skills up to c. 5 years of age, but among Bornean orangutans earlier complete weaning and start of independent ranging through cessation of the association between mother and offspring, despite reported higher food availability in Sumatra. It is suggested that this difference is related to the assumed difference in main cause of mortality: starvation during irregular periods of widespread drought in Borneo vs predation in Sumatra. The benefits of association to both mother and offspring are likely to be different under these different selection pressures. To understand fully the differences between and variation among Bornean and Sumatran orangutans more high quality long-term demographic data on several populations are needed.

Keywords:   development, mother–offspring association, weaning age cause of mortality, independent ranging, Pongo abelii—Sumatran orangutan, Pongo pygmaeus—Bornean orangutan

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