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OrangutansGeographic Variation in Behavioral Ecology and Conservation$
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Serge A. Wich, S Suci Utami Atmoko, Tatang Mitra Setia, and Carel P. van Schaik

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199213276

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213276.001.0001

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Male–male relationships in orangutans

Male–male relationships in orangutans

Chapter:
(p.225) CHAPTER 15 Male–male relationships in orangutans
Source:
Orangutans
Author(s):

Sri Suci Utami Atmoko

Ian Singleton

Maria A. van Noordwijk

Carel P. van Schaik

Tatang Mitra Setia

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213276.003.0015

Sexually mature male orangutans live in home ranges that are 3–5 times that of adult females and show very high overlap. Encounters among flanged males, while rare, are invariably antagonistic and may lead to injury or death. Their dominance relations are not always transitive, however, producing non-linear hierarchies, probably because they usually meet one on one. Flanged males in consortship with a receptive female frequently chase unflanged males trailing them, but never catch them, so that unflanged males often remain associated with the consort pair. Unflanged males are more tolerant among each other, although attacks also occur. The response of flanged males to long calls they hear depends on their dominance position: the dominant male approaches them, whereas the other males tend to avoid them. There is no conclusive information on the reaction of unflanged males. Data from Sumatra suggest that dominant flanged males and the males challenging them for local dominance were most commonly present in a given study area, suggesting that non-dominant males roamed more widely in search of uncontested access to females.

Keywords:   dominance, antagonistic encounters, consortships, home ranges, flanged males, dominant male, unflanged males

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