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OrangutansGeographic Variation in Behavioral Ecology and Conservation$
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Serge A. Wich, S Suci Utami Atmoko, Tatang Mitra Setia, and Carel P. van Schaik

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199213276

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199213276.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 15 October 2021

Social organization and male–female relationships

Social organization and male–female relationships

(p.245) CHAPTER 17 Social organization and male–female relationships

Tatang Mitra Setia

Roberto A. Delgado

S. Suci Utami Atmoko

Ian Singleton

Carel P. van Schaik

Oxford University Press

Despite their semi-solitary nature, associations among orangutans are more common than expected by chance for most combinations of age-sex classes. Variation in party size is due to variation in food availability or sexual activity, reflecting the two main types of parties encountered in orangutans. Parties may involve mating or are formed around mothers and immatures of various ages, in which social play is the main social activity. Beyond direct association, Sumatran females tend to remain within audible range of the dominant flanged males, using his long calls to adjust their ranging. Females tend to be more philopatric than males, although it is not clear whether males disperse away from their natal range or end up including their natal range within a much larger home range. The accumulating evidence suggests that orangutans live in more than mere neighbourhoods, but in loose communities in which related females form clusters, share a preference for the same dominant flanged male, within whose earshot they tend to remain and whose ranging is more limited. Further study should reveal whether this Sumatra-derived picture also holds for Borneo.

Keywords:   long calls, sociality, home range, associations, food availability, sexual activity, social play

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