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Fragmented FranceTwo Centuries of Disputed Identity$
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Jack Hayward

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780199216314

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199216314.001.0001

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Enduring Conflicts and Elusive Consensus

Enduring Conflicts and Elusive Consensus

(p.119) 4 Enduring Conflicts and Elusive Consensus
Fragmented France

Jack Hayward (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

The contrast between an urbanizing and industrializing society and an enduring peasant and artisan population is emphasized, while the business-political elite networks achieved maximum power by the late 19th century. The clerical-anti-clerical struggle for control of education results in the victory of secularism. Committed historians shaped the dominant political culture, although writers (Chateaubriand, Balzac, Stendhal, Lamartine, Baudelaire, Hugo) and artists (Delacroix, Daumier, Courbet) were influential.

Keywords:   peasant, artisan, businessmen, anti-clerical, historians, writers, artists

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