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Perspectival Thought – A Plea for (Moderate) Relativism - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Perspectival Thought: A Plea for (Moderate) Relativism

François Recanati


Our thought and talk are situated: they do not take place in a vacuum but always in a context, and they always concern an external situation relative to which they are to be evaluated. Since that is so, this book argues, our linguistic and mental representations alike must be assigned two layers of content: the explicit content, or lekton, is relative and perspectival, while the complete content, which is absolute, involves contextual factors in addition to what is explicitly represented. Far from reducing to the context-independent meaning of the sentence-type or, in the psychological realm, ... More

Keywords: context, content, indexicality, situations, first person, perspective, relativism, unarticulated constituents, immunity to error through misidentification, subjectivity

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2007 Print ISBN-13: 9780199230532
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2008 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199230532.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

François Recanati, author
Director of Research, CNRS (Institut Jean-Nicod), and Arché Professorial Fellow, University of St Andrews.
Author Webpage

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Front Matter

Book 1 Moderate Relativism

Part 1 The Framework

Part 2 The Debate over Temporalism (1) Do We Need Temporal Propositions?

Part 3 The Debate over Temporalism (2) Can We Believe Temporal Propositions?

Part 4 Relativization and Indexicality

Book II Experience and Subjectivity

Part 5 Content and Mode

Part 6 Immunity to Error Through Misidentification

Part 7 Relativization and Reflexivity

Part 8 The First Person Point of View

Book III Egocentricity and Beyond

Part 9 Unarticulated Constituents in the Lekton?

Part 10 Self‐Relative Thoughts

Part 11 Shiftability

End Matter