This introductory chapter begins with a discussion of the aims of the book, which is to contribute to the understanding of one of the most pressing issues of modern international law: the disconnection, or ‘divide’, between the international legal order, on the one hand, and the legal orders of over 190 sovereign states on the other. It then clarifies the ‘theoretical’ nature of the perspectives contained in the book. It briefly reviews the classic positions of monism and dualism. Understanding the context of the emergence of monism in response to 19th century dualism will provide an essential yardstick for assessing modern perspectives on the divide between international and domestic law. It also reviews current legal developments, which challenge the discipline of international law to rethink these old theories. An overview of the subsequent chapters is presented.
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