This chapter presents a cautious approach on the present-day relevance of dualism and underlines the shortcomings of the theory in regard to modern international law. It argues that there cannot be a general answer to the question whether a certain legal system should be regarded as self-contained or not. The answer to this question with regard to any legal system would depend on features that pertain to the system itself. Thus, some municipal systems may have to be considered as self-contained while others may not. This leads to a pragmatic solution of a different kind from the one which is often advocated in textbooks and elsewhere, and which consists in leaving the theoretical debate over monism and dualism aside.
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