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Complementarity in the Rome Statute and National Criminal Jurisdictions$
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Jann K. Kleffner

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780199238453

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2009

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199238453.001.0001

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The Context and Emergence of Complementarity

The Context and Emergence of Complementarity

(p.57) III The Context and Emergence of Complementarity
Complementarity in the Rome Statute and National Criminal Jurisdictions

Jann K. Kleffner

Oxford University Press

This chapter places complementarity into the broader context of allocating the respective competences of international and domestic courts and tribunals. It traces the emergence of complementarity in the negotiations leading up to the adoption of the Rome Statute. This drafting history reveals that the relationship between the ICC and national criminal jurisdictions was a recurring phenomenon of fundamental importance. Agreement was reached at an early stage on the generic idea that national suppression should be the first line of defence in the fight against impunity, while the Court should fill the gaps left by ineffective national criminal jurisdictions. Yet the details of regulating complementarity proved contentious. States regarded complementarity as the core avenue to reconcile their concerns about their sovereignty with the establishment of an international criminal court. The detailed rules on complementarity thus assumed a vital role in making the Statute as widely acceptable to States as possible.

Keywords:   international courts, domestic courts, models of allocation, Nuremberg, complementarity, negotiations, Rome Statute, ICC

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