Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Tense, Aspect, and Indexicality$

James Higginbotham

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780199239313

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: May 2010

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199239313.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use.  Subscriber: null; date: 19 January 2021

(p.246) References

(p.246) References

Source:
Tense, Aspect, and Indexicality
Publisher:
Oxford University Press

Bibliography references:

Abusch, D. (1988). ‘Sequence of Tense, Intensionality, and Scope’, in H. Borer (ed.), Proceedings of the Seventh West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, distributed by the University of Chicago Press, 1–14.

—— (1991). ‘The Present Under Past as De Re Interpretation’, in D. Bates (ed.), Proceedings of the Tenth West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, distributed by the University of Chicago Press, 1–12.

—— (1994). ‘Sequence of Tense Revisited: Two Semantic Accounts of Tense in Intensional Contexts’, in H. Kamp (ed.), Ellipsis, Tense, and Questions. DYANA deliverable, University of Amsterdam, 87–139.

—— (1997). ‘Sequence of Tense and Temporal De Re’, Linguistics and Philosophy 20: 1–50.

Bach, E. (1982). ‘Purpose Clauses and Control’, in P. Jacobson and G.K. Pullum (eds.), The Nature of Syntactic Representation. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel, 35–57.

—— (1986). ‘The Algebra of Events’. Linguistics and Philosophy 9: 5–16.

Balaguer, M. (1997). ‘Indexical Senses’, ms., CA State University, Los Angeles.

Bar‐Hillel, Y. (1954). ‘Indexical Expressions’. Mind 63: 359–379.

Bhatt, R. (2001). Covert Modality in Non‐Finite Contexts. Unpub. Ph.D. thesis, University of Pennsylvania.

Bonomi, A. (1997). ‘The Progressive and the Structure of Events’. Journal of Semantics 14: 173–205.

—— (1998). ‘Semantical Remarks on the Progressive Reading of the Imperfective’, ms., University of Milan.

Boogaart, R. (1999). Aspect and Temporal Ordering: A Contrastive Analysis of Dutch and English. Ph.D. thesis, University of Amsterdam.

Bowers, J. (1993). ‘The Syntax of Predication’. Linguistic Inquiry 24: 591–656.

Brody, Michael, and Manzini, M. Rita (1987). ‘On Implicit Arguments’, in R.M. Kempson (ed.), Mental Representations: The Interface Between Language and Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 105–130.

Burge, T. (1974). ‘Demonstrative Constructions, Reference, and Truth’. Journal of Philosophy 71: 205–223.

—— (1978). ‘Self‐Reference and Translation’, in F. Guenthner and M. Guenthner‐Reutter (eds.), Meaning and Translation. New York: NYU Press, 137–153.

Byun, H. (2006). ‘Sequence of Tense in Korean and Japanese’, ms., University of Southern California.

Campbell, J. (1999). ‘Immunity to Error Through Misidentification and the Meaning of a Referring Term’. Philosophical Topics 26: 89–104.

Carlson, G. (1980). Reference to Kinds in English. New York: Garland Publishing.

(p.247) —— (1989). ‘Truth Conditions of Generic Sentences: Two Contrasting Views’, in G. Carlson and F.J. Pelletier (eds.) (1995), 224–237.

—— and Pelletier, F.J. (eds.) (1995). The Generic Book. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Castañeda, H.‐N. (1966). ‘He*: A Study in the Logic of Self‐Consciousness’. Ratio 8: 130–157.

—— (1967). ‘Indicators and Quasi‐Indicators’. American Philosophical Quarterly 4: 85–100.

—— (1968). ‘On the Logic of Attributions of Self‐Knowledge to Others’. Journal of Philosophy 65: 439–456.

Chierchia, G. (1990). ‘Anaphora and Attitudes De Se’, in R. Bartsch et al. (eds.), Language in Action. Dordrecht, Holland: Foris Publications, 1–31.

—— (1995). ‘Individual‐Level Predicates as Inherent Generics’, in G. Carlson and F.J. Pelletier (eds.) (1995), 176–223.

Chomsky, N. (1957). Syntactic Structures. The Hague: Mouton.

—— (1972). ‘Remarks on Nominalization’, in Chomsky, Studies on Semantics in Generative Grammar. The Hague: Mouton, 11–61.

—— (1977). ‘On WH‐Movement’, in P.W. Culicover, T. Wasow, and A. Akmajian (eds.), Formal Syntax. New York: Academic Press, 71–132.

—— (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht, Holland: Foris.

Cinque, G. (1999). Adverbs and Functional Heads: A Cross‐Linguistic Perspective. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cresswell, M.J. (1990). Entities and Indices. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer.

Crimmins, M. (1992). Talk About Beliefs. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Culicover, P.W. and Jackendoff, R. (1995). ‘Something Else for the Binding Theory’. Linguistic Inquiry 26: 249–276.

Davidson, D. (1967). ‘The Logical Form of Action Sentences’, in N. Rescher (ed.), The Logic of Decision and Action. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press. Repr. in Davidson (1980), 105–148.

—— (1979). ‘Moods and Performances’, in A. Margalit (ed.), Meaning and Use. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel. Repr. in Davidson (1984), 109–121.

—— (1980). Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— (1984). Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Dowty, D. (1977). ‘Toward a Semantic Analysis of Verb Aspect and the English “Imperfective” Progressive’. Linguistics and Philosophy 1: 45–77.

—— (1979). Word Meaning and Montague Grammar. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel.

—— (1982). ‘Tenses, Time Adverbs, and Compositional Semantic Theory’. Linguistics and Philosophy 5: 23–53.

Enç, M. (1987). ‘Anchoring Conditions for Tense’. Linguistic Inquiry 18: 1–26.

—— (1991). ‘On the Absence of the Present Tense Morpheme in English’, ms., University of Wisconsin, Madison.

(p.248) Epstein, S. (1984). ‘Quantifier PRO and the LF‐Representation of PROARB’. Linguistic Inquiry 15: 499–505.

Evans, G. (1981). ‘Understanding Demonstratives’, in H. Parret and J. Bouveresse (eds.), Meaning and Understanding. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Repr. in Evans, Collected Papers. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985, 291–321.

—— (1982). The Varieties of Reference. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Faraci, R. (1974). Aspects of the Grammar of Infinitives and For‐Phrases. Unpub. PhD. thesis, MA Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

Fiengo, R. (1977). ‘On Trace Theory’. Linguistic Inquiry 8: 35–61.

—— and Higginbotham, J. (1981). ‘Opacity in NP’. Linguistic Analysis 7: 395–421.

Fodor, J. (1975). The Language of Thought. New York: Crowell.

—— and Lepore, E. (1998). ‘Lexical Decomposition; or, Please Don't Play That Again, Sam’, ms., Rutgers University.

Folli, R. (2002). Constructing Telicity in English and Italian. D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford.

Frege, G. (1918). ‘The Thought: A Logical Inquiry’, trans. A.M. and M. Quinton, in P.F. Strawson (ed.), Philosophical Logic. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1967, 17–38.

Giorgi, A. (2005). ‘Perspectives on Tense’, ms., University of Venice.

—— and Pianesi, F. (1997). Tense and Aspect: From Semantics to Morphosyntax. New York: Oxford University Press.

—— —— (1998a). ‘Present Tense, Perfectivity, and the Anchoring Conditions’, in A. Wyner (ed.), Proceedings of the 13th Conference of the Israeli Association for Theoretical Linguistics (IATL‐5). Bar‐Ilan University, Ramat‐Gan, Israel, 75–95.

—— —— (1998b). ‘The Generalized Double‐Access Reading’, ms., University of Bergamo, Italy.

—— —— (2000). ‘Sequence of Tense Phenomena in Italian’. Probus 12: 1–32.

—— —— (2001). ‘Tense, Attitudes, and Subjects’, in R. Hastings, B. Jackson, and Z. Zvolensky (eds.), Proceedings, SALT XI. Cornell University: CLC Publications, 212–230.

Grimshaw, J. (1991). Argument Structure. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Hale, K. and Keyser, S.J. (1998). ‘Conflation’, ms., MIT, Cambridge, MA.

Higginbotham, J. (1983a). ‘The Logic of Perceptual Reports: An Extensional Alternative to Situation Semantics’. Journal of Philosophy 80: 100–127.

—— (1983b). ‘Logical Form, Binding, and Nominals’. Linguistic Inquiry 14: 395–420.

—— (1985). ‘On Semantics’. Linguistic Inquiry 16: 547–593.

—— (1986). ‘Linguistic Theory and Davidson's Program in Semantics’, in E. LePore (ed.), Truth and Interpretation: Perspectives on the Philosophy of Donald Davidson. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 29–48.

(p.249) —— (1988). ‘Contexts, Models, and Meanings: A Note on the Data of Semantics’, in R. Kempson (ed.), Mental Representations: The Interface Between Language and Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 29–48.

—— (1989a). ‘Reference and Control’. Rivista di Linguistica 1. Repr. with minor revisions in R. Larson, S. Iatridou, U. Lahiri, and J. Higginbotham (eds.), Control and Grammar. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer, 1990, 79–108.

—— (1989b). ‘Elucidations of Meaning’. Linguistics and Philosophy 12: 465–517.

—— (1991a). ‘Belief and Logical Form’. Mind and Language 6: 344–369.

—— (1991b). ‘Truth and Understanding’. Iyyun 40: 271–288.

—— (1991c). ‘Either/Or’. NELS XXI Proceedings. GLSA, University of MA, Amherst, 143–155.

—— (1993a). ‘Notes on Sequence of Tense’, ms., University of Oxford.

—— (1993b). Review of M.J. Cresswell, Entities and Indices. Journal of Symbolic Logic 58: 723–725.

—— (1993c). ‘Remarks on Aspect’. Invited lecture, SALT III, University of CA, Irvine. Ms., University of Southern CA.

—— (1994a). ‘Priorities in the Philosophy of Thought’. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume: 85–106.

—— (1994b). ‘Mass and Count Quantifiers’. Linguistics and Philosophy 17: 447–480. Repr. in E. Bach, E. Jelinek, A. Kratzer, and B.H. Partee (eds.), Quantification in Natural Language, Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer, 1995, 383–419.

—— (1995a). Sense and Syntax. Inaugural lecture, University of Oxford. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

—— (1995b). ‘Tensed Thoughts’. Mind and Language 10: 226–249. Repr. in W. Künne, A. Newen, and M. Anduschus (eds.), Direct Reference, Indexicality, and Propositional Attitudes. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, 1997, 21–48.

—— (1996). ‘Competence with Demonstratives’, ms., University of Oxford. Pub. in Philosophical Perspectives 16 (2002): 3–18. Also in B. Ramberg and M. Hahn (eds.), Reflections and Replies: Essays on the Philosophy of Tyler Burge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003, 101–115.

—— (1997). ‘A Plea for Implicit Anaphora’, in H. Bennis, P. Pica, and J. Rooryck (eds.), Atomism and Binding. Amsterdam: Foris, 183–203.

—— (2000a). ‘On Events in Linguistic Semantics’, in J. Higginbotham, F. Pianesi, and A. Varzi (eds.), Speaking of Events. New York: Oxford University Press, 49–79.

—— (2000b). ‘Accomplishments’. Proceedings of Glow in Asia II. Nagoya, Japan: Nanzan University, 72–82.

—— (2002a). ‘Why is Sequence of Tense Obligatory?’, in G. Preyer and G. Peter (eds.), Logical Form and Language. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 207–227.

—— (2002b). ‘Competence with Demonstratives’. Philosophical Perspectives 16: 3–18.

—— (2003a). ‘Tensed Second Thoughts: Comments on Richard’, in A. Jokič and Q. Smith (eds.), Time, Tense, and Reference. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 191–197.

(p.250) Higginbotham, J. (2003b). ‘Remembering, Imagining, and the First Person’, in A. Barber (ed.), Epistemology of Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 496–533.

—— (2005). ‘Event Positions: Suppression and Emergence’. Theoretical Linguistics 31: 349–358.

—— (2006a). ‘The Anaphoric Theory of Tense’, in M. Gibson and J. Howell (eds.), Proceedings from Semantics and Linguistic Theory 16. CLC Publications, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 59–76.

—— (2006b). ‘Sententialism: The Thesis that Complement Clauses Refer to Themselves’, in E. Sosa and E. Villanueva (eds.), Philosophical Issues 16: Philosophy of Language (a supplementary volume to Noûs). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 101–119.

—— (2007). ‘Remarks on Compositionality’. G. Ramchand and C. Reiss (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Interfaces. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 425–444.

—— (2008). ‘The English Perfect and the Metaphysics of Events’, in J. Lecarme and J. Guéron (eds.), Time and Modality. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 173–193.

—— and Ramchand, G. (1997). ‘The Stage‐Level/Individual‐Level Distinction and the Mapping Hypothesis’. Oxford Working Papers in Linguistics, Philology, and Phonetics 2: 53–83.

Hoekstra, T. (1992). ‘Aspect and Theta Theory’, in I. Roca (ed.), Thematic Structure: Its Role in Grammar. Amsterdam: Foris, 145–174.

Huang, Y. (2000). Anaphora: A Cross‐Linguistic Study. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Iatridou, S., Anagnostopoulou, E., and Izvorski, R. (2005). ‘Observations About the Form and Meaning of the Perfect’, in M. Kenstowicz (ed.), Ken Hale: A Life in Language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 189–238.

Ippolito, M. (1996). Tense and Aspect in English and Italian. M.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford.

—— (1998). ‘Reference Time and Tense Anaphora’, ms., MIT, Cambridge, MA.

—— (1999). ‘The Imperfect and Modality’, ms., MIT, Cambridge, MA.

Israel, D. and Perry, J. (1996). ‘Where Monsters Dwell’, in J. Seligman and D. Westerståhl (eds.), Logic, Language, and Computation, vol. 1. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, 1–14.

Jespersen, O. (1924). The Philosophy of Grammar. New York: Norton.

Jones, C. (1991). Purpose Clauses: Syntax, Thematics, and Semantics of English Purpose Constructions. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer.

Kamp, J.A.W. (1971). ‘Formal Properties of “Now” ’. Theoria 37: 227–273.

—— (1981). ‘A Theory of Truth and Semantic Representation’, in J. Groenendijk et al. (eds.), Formal Methods in the Study of Language. Amsterdam: Mathematical Centre, 277–322.

—— and Reyle, U. (1993). From Discourse to Logic. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer.

Kaplan, D. (1977). ‘Demonstratives’. Pub. with afterthoughts in J. Almog et al. (eds.), Themes From Kaplan. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989, 481–614.

(p.251) —— (1995). ‘Meaning and Use’. Gareth Evans Memorial Lecture, University of Oxford.

Kayne, R. (1985). ‘Principles of Particle Constructions’, in H. Obenauer et al. (eds.), Levels of Syntactic Representation. Amsterdam: Foris, 101–140.

—— (1994). The Antisymmetry of Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Kiparsky, P. (1996). ‘Remarks on Denominal Verbs’, in A. Alsina et al. (eds.), Complex Predicates. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.

—— (2002). ‘Event Structure and the Perfect’, in D.I. Beaver, L.D. Casillas Martínez, B.Z. Clark, and S. Kaufmann (eds.), The Construction of Meaning. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, 1–20.

Kratzer, A. (1995). ‘Stage‐Level and Individual‐Level Predicates’, in G. Carlson and F.J. Pelletier (eds.) (1995), 125–175.

Kretzmann, N. (1966). ‘Omniscience and Immutability’. Journal of Philosophy 63: 409–421.

Krifka, M. (1992). ‘Thematic Relations as Links between Nominal Reference and Temporal Constitution’, in I. Sag and A. Szabolcsi (eds.), Lexical Matters. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, 29–53.

Ladusaw, W. (1977). ‘Some Problems with Tense in PTQ’. Texas Linguistic Forum 6: 89–102.

Landau, I. (2000). Elements of Control: Structure and Meaning in Infinitival Constructions. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer.

Landman, F. (1992). ‘The Progressive’. Natural Language Semantics 1: 1–32.

Lewis, D. (1970). ‘General Semantics’. Synthèse 22. Reprinted in Lewis (1983), 189–232.

—— (1973). Counterfactuals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

—— (1979) ‘Attitudes de dicto and de se’. Philosophical Review 88: 513–543. Repr. in Lewis (1983), 133–159.

—— (1980). ‘Index, Context, and Content’, in S. Kanger and S. Öhman (eds.), Philosophy and Grammar. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel. Repr. in Lewis (1998), 21–44.

—— (1983). Philosophical Papers, Vol. I. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— (1998). Papers in Philosophical Logic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McTaggart, E. (1908). ‘The Unreality of Time’. Mind 17: 456–473.

Mitchell, J. (1986). The Formal Semantics Point of View. Unpub. Ph.D. thesis, University of MA, Amherst MA.

Mittwoch, A. (1988). ‘Aspects of English Aspect: On the Interaction of Perfect, Progressive, and Durational Phrases’. Linguistics and Philosophy 11: 203–254.

Montague, R. (1960). ‘On the Nature of Certain Philosophical Entities’. The Monist 53. Repr. in Montague (1974), 148–187.

—— (1968). ‘Pragmatics’, in R. Klibansky (ed.), Contemporary Philosophy. Florence, Italy: La Nuova Italia Editrice, 102–121. Repr. in Montague (1974), 95–118.

—— (1974). Formal Philosophy, ed. R. Thomason. New Haven: Yale University Press.

(p.252) Moore, G.E. (1927). ‘Facts and Propositions’. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Vol. VII (Symposium with F.P. Ramsey.) Repr. in Moore, Philosophical Papers. London: George, Allen and Unwin, 1959, 60–88.

Ogihara, T. (1989). Temporal Reference in English and Japanese. Unpub. Ph.D. thesis, University of Texas at Austin.

—— (1994). ‘Adverbs of Quantification and Sequence‐of‐Tense Phenomena’, in M. Harvey and L. Santelmann (eds.), Proceedings of Semantics and Linguistic Theory IV. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: DMLL Publications, 251–267.

—— (1995). Tense, Attitudes, and Scope. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer.

Pancheva, R. (2004). ‘Another Perfect Puzzle’, in V. Chand et al. (eds.), Proceedings, WCCFL 23. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Press, 621–634.

—— and Stechow, A. von (2004). ‘On the Present Perfect Puzzle’, in K. Moulton and M. Wolf (eds.), Proceedings NELS 34. University of MA, Amherst, 469–483.

Parsons, T. (1989). ‘The Progressive in English: Events, States, and Processes’. Linguistics and Philosophy 12: 213–241.

—— (1990). Events in the Semantics of English: A Study in Subatomic Semantics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Partee, B. (1989). ‘Binding Implicit Variables in Quantified Contexts’. Chicago Linguistics Society 25, University of Chicago: 342–365.

Peacocke, C. (1981). ‘Demonstrative Thought and Psychological Explanation’. Synthèse 49: 187–217.

—— (1998). Being Known. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Perry, J. (1979). ‘The Problem of the Essential Indexical’. Noûs 13: 3–21. Repr. with a postscript in Perry (2000), 27–44.

—— (1983). ‘Castañeda on He and I’, (ed.) J.E. Tomberlin, Agent, Language, and the Structure of the World: Essays Presented to Hector‐Neri Castañeda With His Replies. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company. Repr. in Perry (2000), 77–100.

—— (1993). Postscript to ‘Frege on Demonstratives’. The Problem of the Essential Indexical and Other Essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Repr. in Perry (2000), 21–26.

—— (2000). The Problem of the Essential Indexical and Other Essays. Expanded edn. Stanford: CSLI Publications.

Portner, P. (2003). ‘The (Temporal) Semantics and the (Modal) Pragmatics of the Perfect’. Linguistics and Philosophy 26: 459–510.

Prior, A.N. (1957). Time and Modality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

—— (1967). Past, Present, and Future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Pryor, J. (1999). ‘Immunity to Error Through Misidentification’. Philosophical Topics 26: 271–304.

Quine, W.V. (1960). Word and Object. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Recanati, F. (2007). Perspectival Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Reichenbach, H. (1947). Elements of Symbolic Logic. New York: Macmillan.

(p.253) Richard, M. (1983). ‘Direct Reference and Ascriptions of Belief’. Journal of Philosophical Logic 12: 425–452.

—— (1990). Propositional Attitudes: An Essay on Thoughts and How We Ascribe Them. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

—— (2003). ‘Objects of Relief’, in A. Jokič and Q. Smith (eds.), Time, Tense, and Reference. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 157–189.

Roberts, I. (1987). The Representation of Implicit and Dethematized Subjects. Dordrecht, Holland: Foris.

Roeper, T. (1987). ‘Implicit Arguments and the Head–Complement Relation’. Linguistic Inquiry 18: 267–310.

Rothstein, S. (2000). ‘Progressive Accomplishments’, ms., Bar‐Ilan University, Tel‐Aviv, Israel.

Salmon, N. (1986). Frege's Puzzle. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Schein, B. (1993). Plurals and Events. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Schiffer, S. (1977). ‘Naming and Knowing’, in P. French, T. Uehling, Jr., and H. Wettstein (eds.), Contemporary Perspectives in the Philosophy of Language. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 61–74.

—— (1987). ‘The “Fido”‐Fido Theory of Belief’, in J.E. Tomberlin (ed.), Philosophical Perspectives 1: Metaphysics. Altascadero, CA: Ridgeview Publishing Company, 457–480.

Schlenker, P. (1999). Propositional Attitudes and Indexicality: A Cross‐Categorial Approach. Unpub. Ph.D. thesis, MA Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

—— (2003). ‘A Plea for Monsters’. Linguistics and Philosophy 26: 29–120.

Segerberg, K. (1973). ‘Two Dimensional Modal Logic’. Journal of Philosophical Logic 2: 77–101.

Shoemaker, S. (1968). ‘Self‐Reference and Self‐Awareness’. Journal of Philosophy 65: 555–567.

—— (1970). ‘Persons and Their Pasts’. American Philosophical Quarterly 7: 269–285.

Smith, C. (1978). ‘The Syntax and Interpretation of Temporal Expressions in English’. Linguistics and Philosophy 2: 43–99.

—— (1991). The Parameter of Aspect. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer.

Stalnaker, R. (1981). ‘Indexical Belief’. Synthèse 49: 129–151. Repr. in Stalnaker (1999), 130–149.

—— (1984). Inquiry. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

—— (1987). ‘Semantics for Belief’. Philosophical Topics 15: 177–190. Repr. in Stalnaker (1999), 117–130.

—— (1999). Context and Content. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stechow, A. von (1995). ‘On the Proper Treatment of Tense’. Paper presented at SALT V.

—— (2001). ‘Temporally Opaque Arguments in Verbs of Creation’, in C. Cecchetto, G. Chierchia, and M.T. Guasti (eds.), Semantic Interfaces: Reference, Anaphora, and Aspect. Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications, 278–319.

—— (2002). ‘Tense in Intensional Contexts: Two Semantic Accounts of Abusch's Theory of Tense’, ms., University of Tübingen.

(p.254) Stowell, T. (1993). ‘Syntax and Tense’, ms., University of CA, Los Angeles.

Strawson, P. (1950). ‘On Referring’. Mind 59: 320–344.

Talmy, Leonard (1985). ‘Lexicalization Patterns: Semantic Structure in Lexical Forms’, in T. Shopen (ed.), Language Typology and Syntactic Description III: Grammatical Categories and the Lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tenny, C. (1994). Aspectual Roles and the Syntax–Semantics Interface. Dordrecht, Holland: Kluwer.

Tortora, C.M. (1998). ‘Verbs of Inherently Directed Motion are Compatible with Resultative Phrases’. Linguistic Inquiry 29: 338–345.

Verkuyl, H. (1993). Aspectuality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vlach, F. (1981). ‘The Semantics of the Progressive’, in P. Tedeschi and A. Zaenen (eds.), Tense and Aspect (Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 14). New York: Academic Press, 271–292.

Weinstein, S. (1974). ‘Truth and Demonstratives’. Nous 8: 179–184.

Whelpton, M. (1993). The Syntax and Semantics of Infinitives of Result in English. Unpub. M.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford.

—— (1995). Syntactic and Semantic Functions in Control Theory. Unpub. D.Phil. thesis, University of Oxford.

Williams, E. (1994). Thematic Structure in Syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Wurmbrand, S. (2001). ‘Back to the Future’. Snippets 3: 15–16.

Zagona, K. (1992). ‘Tense Binding and the Construal of Present Tense’, in C. Laeufer and T. Morgan (eds.), Theoretical Analyses in Romance Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

—— (2000). ‘Tense Construal in Complement Clauses: Verbs of Communication and the Double Access Reading’, ms., University of Washington, Seattle.

Zubizarretta, M.‐L. (1982). On the Relationship of the Lexicon to Syntax. Unpub. Ph.D. thesis, MA Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.

Zucchi, A. (1997). ‘Incomplete Events, Intensionality, and Imperfective Aspect’. Natural Language Semantics 7: 179–215.