The novel experience of ‘total war’, which had such important domestic ramifications, was accompanied on an international level by a closer wartime alliance than Britain had ever had in the past. Rather like the domestic situation, Britain's relationship with its allies, above all France, steadily moved from haphazard improvisation to increasingly formal and permanent arrangements. At the top level, Anglo-French coordination began with individual visits, such as Lord Kitchener's to Paris in September 1914 and his French counterpart Alexandre Millerand's to London in January 1915. The first formal conference between the British and French governments did not take place until July 1915 at Calais, nearly a year into World War I. This chapter discusses the British-French coalition in the war, the role of Henry Wilson in coordinating the Allied efforts, politics in the British army, and the British War Cabinet.
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