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Evolution and the Levels of Selection$
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Samir Okasha

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780199267972

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2007

DOI: 10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199267972.001.0001

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Selection at Multiple Levels: Concepts and Methods

Selection at Multiple Levels: Concepts and Methods

(p.40) 2 Selection at Multiple Levels: Concepts and Methods
Evolution and the Levels of Selection

Samir Okasha (Contributor Webpage)

Oxford University Press

This chapter develops an abstract framework for thinking about selection acting at multiple hierarchical levels. The nature of hierarchical organization is analyzed, in particular the idea that interaction among lower-level entities is what gives rise to a higher-level entity. The relation between characters, fitnesses, and heritabilities at two hierarchical levels is discussed as a precursor to understanding multi-level selection. An important ambiguity in the notion of multi-level selection, due to J. Damuth and I. L. Heisler, is then examined. Both types of multi-level selection (MLS1 and MLS2) are analyzed using Price's equation and contrasted with each other.

Keywords:   hierarchical organization, part-whole structure, interaction, particles, collectives, trait groups, multi-level selection, MLS1, MLS2, Price's equation

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