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Human Rights Transformed – Positive Rights and Positive Duties - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Human Rights Transformed: Positive Rights and Positive Duties

Sandra Fredman FBA


This book moves beyond the artificial boundary between socio-economic and civil and political rights and instead focuses on the positive duties to which all rights give rise. Human rights have traditionally been understood as protecting individual freedom against intrusion by the State. This book argues that human rights are based on a far richer view of freedom, going beyond absence of coercion and focussing on the ability to exercise such freedom. This requires positive action to facilitate freedom, and substantive equality. It also recognizes the essentially social nature of human beings, a ... More

Keywords: socio-economic rights, civil and political rights, positive duties, substantive equality, freedom, democracy, human rights transformed, State, comparative law

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2008 Print ISBN-13: 9780199272761
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2009 DOI:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199272761.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Sandra Fredman FBA, author
Professor of Law, Oxford University and Fellow of Exeter College Oxford